Nearby Explorer™

User's Guide

Copyright 2011-2013

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.

2013/10/11

Location and Navigation

Survival and success depend on good orientation skills. For thousands of years, people used landmarks, weather, and other environmental clues to map the hunting area, measure their progress, and safely return home. Sailors observed wind, stars, and characteristics specific to local habitats to navigate thousands of miles, map their discoveries, and return home. As technology progressed to the use of increasingly complex and useful orientation aids, man's ability to map his environment has become quite precise.

With the introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the last few decades, the power to quickly and accurately determine your place on earth, with no training, is available to anyone. When combined with an accessible interface, customizable and current information about points of interest (POIs), and careful observation of the immediate environment, today's tools can provide an accurate picture of the vicinity and its characteristics to a blind user.

The tools provided by Nearby Explorer (NE) make independent travel for blind pedestrians and passengers efficient, informative, and fun. Knowledge of your surroundings empowers you to explore, discover, and enjoy your own neighborhood, city, and beyond with poise and confidence.

The information Nearby Explorer provides helps the blind traveler stay oriented. It shows surrounding and approaching streets, businesses, institutions, and public facilities, and offers continually updating distance and directional information to the nearest or selected location.

It provides a sense of the surrounding streets and their relationship to the user's current position.

It enables the blind passenger in a vehicle to aid the driver with directions and suggestions.

Below is a list of some of the services Nearby Explorer has to offer:

  1. Increases awareness of precise position. Nearby Explorer optionally announces the street and address of the user's current position and gives continual updates as he moves. For even finer detail, latitude and longitude announcements pinpoint positions to within a few yards. The announcing feature is optional for all items.
  2. Increases the sense of distance. It updates distances to selected locations as the user advances toward or away from the location.
  3. Improves spatial awareness. It anticipates and announces the distance and direction of upcoming streets.
  4. Improves knowledge of the user's surroundings. It displays the distance, direction, name, and address of the nearest Place either in the built-in maps or in Places the user sets.
  5. Increases flexibility. It shows surrounding streets when the user orients the phone vertically into "Compass Mode.æ It announces the direction and all the street names for one half mile.
  6. Improves orientation to surrounding businesses. It lets the user point and get haptic and verbal feedback about the name and the distance to objects to which he points.
  7. Guides the user to a selected destination, even while walking.
  8. Displays directions to a selected destination.
  9. Searches for Places, streets, and addresses and shows them immediately.
  10. Explores the map in different selections, such as, by intersections, all streets, or all streets from 1 or 10 miles away.
  11. Displays heading and speed.
  12. Surveys a selected Place and provides the distance and direction.
  13. Accepts direct input of latitude and longitude points, names the point, and saves it for later use in activities such as geocaching.
  14. Intelligently announces latitude and longitude of the current position.

About This Manual

This documentation was complete and accurate at the time of its writing. When there are updates or corrections, you may find them at http://tech.aph.org/ne_info.htm.

There is also an email list dedicated to the use of this app. Many knowledgeable users and developers are on the list, and it is a great place to make suggestions, provide tips, and ask questions.

To subscribe to the list, send a blank email message to ne-subscribe@tech.aph.org.

Limitations

While it is tempting to assume that location based software, such as Nearby Explorer, solves all the navigation and orientation barriers faced by blind travelers, there are a number of conditions that must be considered. To better appreciate these benefits and limitations, it is useful to obtain a basic understanding of how the technology works.

There are several components in play.

GPS

The device uses a global positioning system (GPS) receiver to read signals sent from an array of satellites designed for this purpose. The receiver uses these signals to pinpoint a position on earth and assign lateral and longitudinal coordinates to that position. In general, a good consumer-grade receiver can render accuracy to within a few yards of a person's actual position under optimal conditions. More realistically, you can expect to achieve accuracy, most of the time, good enough to determine on which side of the street you are traveling.

Some of the conditions that adversely affect accuracy with reading satellite signals include the following:

Maps

The latitude and longitude coordinates do not mean much to most users, so they must be combined with maps that contain more familiar landmarks such as streets and places. Nearby Explorer comes equipped with maps that cover the United States and Canada, but you may use online features of Google's map services combined with the virtual navigation features in Nearby Explorer. to explore anywhere in the world.



Figure 1. Screen shot of a street map

There are several factors about the map data that are useful to understand to make the most effective use of the software:

Pay Attention to Your Environment

You must pay attention to your environment. The data given from Nearby Explorer are suggestions, not absolute facts. The present conditions and immediate environment must always take precedence over NE's suggestions.

There is a TV commercial where the driver of an automobile crashes into a wall after his GPS says, "Turn Right" only to be followed by "in one hundred yards." While the commercial might seem comical, paying attention to your environment is a serious matter.

Requirements

Nearby Explorer requires (1) a device running Android 2.2 or later, (2) a device with a GPS chip or the ability to connect to an external GPS receiver, and (3) at least 3 GB of free space on the device's SD card for map storage. If the device also includes a cell data connection, Nearby Explorer can use that to supplement onboard maps with more current points of interest from Google Places service.

A Note about Device Navigation

The steps in this manual refer to devices that let you navigate through lists and options by using arrow keys. If your device does not have arrow keys, use the normal procedures for touching appropriate list items or scrolling through the list.

Nearby Explorer requires the GPS chip to be turned on. Turn the GPS chip off only if you never or rarely use any GPS services. When not in use, its power consumption is minimal.

To turn the chip on or off, follow these steps:

  1. Press Home to go to the Home screen.
  2. Press Menu to open the Home screen menu.
  3. Choose Settings from the menu.
  4. Choose Location and Security.
  5. Check the GPS option.
  6. For faster acquisition of a position, also check the Network option.

When the GPS chip is in use, such as when using Nearby Explorer, battery consumption is significantly increased. It is necessary, in fact, to plug in the device if using it on a long trip, where the GPS is in use for more than several hours at a time.

It is recommended that you purchase a charger adapter that plugs into the auxiliary (aux) power in an automobile. These chargers have a slot to plug in the USB host end of the charging cable. If aux power is not available and you use the GPS for more than 6 hours, you may use an aux charger that contains its own batteries.

To pause the GPS power consumption, press Back until Nearby Explorer closes, or select one of the other main areas of the program where the GPS chip is not used. Pause, Map Search, Explore, and Favorite Places are all areas where Nearby Explorer shuts down the GPS chip.

External GPS Receivers

Using an external GPS receiver can improve accuracy and reduce battery consumption. The disadvantage, of course, is having to keep up with, carry, and charge another device. Often, though, it is worth it.

To use an external GPS receiver on Android devices, you must "trick" Android into using something other than the device's internal receiver. This is accomplished with the use of a program to read a receiver and put its values in a mock location for the operating system.

There are three steps to set up the use of an external receiver: (a) inform Android, (b) pair a receiver, and (c) run an app to read the receiver and inform Android.

Allow Mock Locations

To turn on Mock Locations in versions of Android before 3.0, go to Settings / Applications / Development and check Allow Mock Locations,

If you use Android 4.0 or later, the steps to use an external GPS receiver are slightly different: (1) go to Settings and scroll down to the System category, (2) turn on Developer Options and select OK, and (3) select Allow Mock Locations.



Figure 2. The Developer Options menu

Pair the Receiver

Before you can pair the receiver, turn on the Bluetooth radio. Go to Settings / Wireless and Networks / Bluetooth.

Once Bluetooth is on, pair the receiver to your device as follows:

  1. Go to Settings / Wireless and Networks / Bluetooth / Bluetooth Settings and select Scan for Devices.
  2. Find the name of the Bluetooth receiver.
  3. Press Select or tap to pair with the receiver. The Bluetooth Manager asks you to type a pairing code. Usually, this code is 0000 or 1234 for GPS receivers, but you may check your receiver's documentation for confirmation.
  4. Type the pairing code and press Enter.

Run an App to Fill Mock Locations

Once you have the receiver working, use an app to read the GPS receiver and put its location readings in the Mock Locations area. One such program that comes installed on the Braille Plus 18 is BlueGPS. If you are not using the Braille Plus 18, go to the Android Play Store and search for External GPS Provider.

Setting up the app for use with your receiver depends on the app you use. In BlueGPS, let the Android device know which receiver to use by starting the program and selecting Choose Bluetooth Device. Pick your receiver from this list of paired devices. You will only need to do this procedure once, unless you choose to switch to another receiver at a later time.

Normal Use

Once set-up is finished, to start using the GPS receiver (1) turn on the receiver and (2) Start Blue GPS or other Bluetooth GPS provider software and select the option to Start/Stop using the receiver. You will select this option again to turn off the receiver.

Installation

If you are using the Braille Plus 18, Nearby Explorer is already installed. Most other users will install Nearby Explorer from the Play Store.

If you do not install Nearby Explorer from the Play Store, you will need to allow the Non-Market Applications Setting. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Go to Settings/Applications and check the box that says Allow Non-Market Applications.
  2. Copy the APK file to the phone. A good alternative is to email the file to the device.
  3. Click on the APK file. If it is attached to an email, you may click it there. If you copy it to the device, you will probably also need to install a file manager program to find and click the file. Search the Play Store for File Manager to find some good options.

First Time Use

When you start Nearby Explorer for the first time, it displays licensing information that should be read carefully. If you understand and agree with the terms, click the OK button to continue.

If the app detects it has no map data, it checks to ensure there is a Wi-Fi connection and downloads the maps.

If your phone contains more than one Secure Digital (SD) card, Nearby Explorer displays a dialog asking you to choose the SD card on which to install the maps.

You may use the app while maps download, but only limited functionality is available until the download is completed.

Starting

When you start the application, Nearby Explorer displays the Nearby screen and waits for positioning information from the GPS receiver. If this is the first time the GPS chip in your device is used since the last reset, it may take several minutes to acquire a valid signal. The process to obtain a signal is called a "fix" as in fixing your position. The initial fix time is aided by using cell network information to obtain a general location. While the network method to fix your position is fast, it is not as accurate as the fix obtained from satellites. The Provider item in the Nearby screen shows where positioning information is obtained.

If your device does not obtain a satellite fix, there are some techniques you may employ to improve the chances of acquiring a good signal:

Once the GPS receiver obtains a fix, subsequent starts occur much more quickly.

The Nearby screen provides information about your current position. You use it in one of two ways:

  1. Move through the items in the list and note the value of each item. Nearby Explorer keeps the list updated with real-time positioning information. It reads the GPS receiver location every second and updates the Nearby screen whenever that information changes.
  2. Check the appropriate item. Once it is checked, Nearby Explorer either articulates that item or posts a notification whenever the information changes as you move. Once an item is checked, you can put the device in sleep mode or start another app and NE will continue to notify you with updates about your changing position. If you are using a phone with a touch screen, this is the normal operating procedure. In this way, you may put the phone in a pocket or purse and continue to get updates with no concern of accidentally touching the screen.


Figure 3. The Settings menu

The items you check depend on how you wish to use the program.

Nearby Explorer remembers the checked items, so when you close and then open the app again, your previously checked items are still checked.



Figure 4. Nearby Explorer app menu

The specific items you check depend on your needs at a particular time.

While walking in an unfamiliar area, it is useful to check the street address, street name, and possibly the nearest point of interest (POI) and the distance to the nearest POI. However, if you are riding in a car, it may be too much to have street numbers announced, and it is almost certainly too much to have distances to POIs announced.

You likely want information that changes very infrequently to be checked. For example, City, County, State, and Provider are items that change so infrequently that you may always want to know about them.

It is important to keep "chatter" to a minimum. Since most of the information from the Nearby screen is time sensitive, it is not useful to have too much verbal communication. By the time you hear it, it would no longer be relevant.

How to Stop

To stop using Nearby Explorer, select Back to exit the program.

The Main Screen

The available items on the Nearby screen include the following:

Context Menu

In addition to checking the items to monitor, you may hold Select or tap and hold to show a menu of options related to the selected item on the Nearby screen. These options let you bookmark positions, start guidance, and perform other actions on the current position. These options are discussed shortly.

Program Startup

As the program starts, it attempts to obtain good satellite reception to accurately fix your position. During the recovery process, the speech to text may sound like your position is changing. This is especially apparent if you have the Heading, Street Address, and Street Name boxes checked. As the fix becomes more accurate, NE announces the changing addresses. This process usually takes only a moment or two. If the process is bothersome, use Up Arrow or Down Arrow to silence the speech until the position stabilizes.

The following sections explain the options on the Nearby screen. Some options, such as State or City, are self-explanatory and are not covered with a separate section.

Provider

The Provider option presents information about where Nearby Explorer is getting its positioning information. GPS is the most accurate, but sometimes, a GPS signal is not available. In such cases, the source is the network; either Wi-Fi or cell data.

When NE first opens, it receives its initial position virtually from the last place it located. The Provider is "Virtual." When it gets a position from a network, it updates and indicates "Network." Once the GPS chip is turned on and acquires satellite readings, the Provider switches to "GPS."

When you position the device for use as the compass, NE shows the Provider as Compass. When you use Geobeam, the Provider shows as "Geobeam."

Heading

When the Heading item on the Nearby screen is checked, NE announces the heading and continually updates it as you move. This heading is derived by comparing the location of the last reading with the position of the current reading. This means that in order to get a heading from GPS, you must be moving.

The Heading tells you the direction in which you are moving. Nearby Explorer uses that information to determine which streets you are approaching. When you stop moving, the heading is undefined, and Nearby Explorer uses "None" to describe this status.

Compass

In addition to obtaining heading information from the GPS, it is possible to use the compass to announce the direction you are facing.

To use the compass to obtain a direction, hold the device vertically and point the camera in the desired direction, as if you were using the device to take a picture. Nearby Explorer responds by giving a confirmation tone and announcing the direction as obtained from the device's compass.

In addition to the direction, the compass can also announce a list of streets that intersect a line (representing the street on which you are traveling) in the direction you point the device. To enable this feature, check the Street checkbox on the Nearby screen.

As you point the device in another direction, the compass speech function silences, vibrates, and then announces the new information about direction and streets.

To stop using the compass for heading information, move the device so it is no longer oriented vertically. NE responds with another confirmation tone and proceeds to obtain the heading information from the GPS.

Note: The compass only works while Nearby Explorer is the program in focus. This lets you use the phone or other software without any concerns about the device's orientation.

Note: All other functions of Nearby Explorer remain active, even when you start another program.

To disable the compass, go to Menu/More/Settings and uncheck the Allow Compass Mode option.

The compass can be effected by magnets or large metal objects. When the compass data becomes invalid, Nearby Explorer responds with "Shake" to indicate that it may be necessary to shake the device to reset the compass. Normally, moving away from metal objects is enough to reset the compass. When it resets, NE announces, "Compass OK" or "Compass Fair."

The Street Number option on the Nearby screen provides the closest house number of the current position. As you move, the number changes to reflect the new, current address.

Nearby Explorer normally calculates street addresses by dividing a block into equal segments and assigning a number to each segment. There are cases where this approach can report a number that is one or two houses away from the actual address. Take the example of a large business that occupies an entire block. While its published address might be 900 Main Street, As you walk down the block, Nearby Explorer gladly reports 900, 902, 904, all the way to the official end of block which will normally be 998.

Nearby Explorer offers an alternative method of obtaining a street address that can be more reliable than the estimation method it normally employs. This alternative uses the Google services to report the number. Remember, however, that this works only if you have a network connection. To use the alternative method, check the "Use Google for Street Addresses" option in the Settings screen.

The Street Name option displays the street on which the user is currently traveling. If this item is checked, a street's name is announced when you turn onto another street or when you enter a cross street.

When approaching a cross street, depending on the accuracy of the GPS signal, NE announces the cross street's name as you enter the street. Inaccurate signals may make it announce the cross street either before or after you enter or leave the street crossing.

To constantly update your street address while walking, check both the Street Number and Street Name boxes. As you walk, NE announces the street address but not the street name (because the street name is not changing). With both boxes checked, when you approach and pass a cross street, the app announces the name of the street and the closest house number on that street. Often, NE announces an address from each side of the cross street as you pass it. The first is the closest house number on the side of the street on which you are traveling. As you cross, NE announces the second number which is the closest house number on the far side of the street.

As you turn onto another street, Nearby Explorer announces the name of that street as soon as it recognizes the new coordinates. This usually occurs within a few seconds of the turn.

The street number and name announcements are two of the best ways to obtain the most detailed information about your location. When combined with a Nearby Places address, which is also approximated, you can easily determine on which side of the street you are traveling and on which side the desired destination is located.

Note that poor GPS reception can result in misinformation, such as addresses located on the wrong side of the street. If this happens, avoid setting any Favorites until you obtain a better signal, and keep in mind the inaccuracies.

Parking Lots and Other "Off-Road" Locations

If you are not near a street, Nearby Explorer appends a distance and direction to the nearest address. For example, if you turn south into a parking lot at 100 Main St. and move away from the street, the program adds a message, such as "29 yards north", to the street name announcement. In this way as you move south, away from Main St., the program announces the address as "Main St. 29 yards north." This additional information about the distance and direction is useful to determine the route back to the road network in a park, parking lot, or other open area.

Occasionally, even though you are on a street, the program may announce the street name as if you were away from the street. This usually occurs from a poor satellite signal and ordinarily corrects itself unless atmospheric conditions are extremely poor.

If you do not want to know about how far away from the street you really are, you may turn this off by holding the Street option on the Nearby screen and unchecking the Off-Road option on the context menu that appears.

How Addresses Work

In many US cities, the city is divided into quadrants with a street separating the north from the south quadrant and a street separating the east from the west quadrant. Any street that is west of the east/west line often contains "W" in the name to indicate that it is west of the dividing line between east and west. Similarly, streets east of the east/west line often contain "E" in the name. The addresses begin at the east/west line and increase as they move away from it in either direction. Thus, if the east/west dividing line is Main Street, and Maple Street intersects Main, the addresses west of Main would start with 100 and increase as you move west. 400 W. Maple Street is west of 300 W. Maple Street. Similarly, the addresses east of Main increase as you move east, so 200 E. Maple Street is east of 100 E. Maple Street.

Often a block starts with an address such as 100 or 200 and increases to 99 before the next block begins, so addresses on a typical block range from numbers such as 100 to 199 or 200 to 299. Of course, if a street is particularly long, the street numbers might be a range of five digit numbers such as 26800 to 26899.

Even-numbered addresses are on one side of the street, and odd numbers are on the other side. Usually, 200 is straight across the street from 201. In most cases, the even-numbered addresses fall on the south and west sides of a street, and the odd-numbered addresses fall on the north and east sides.

Interstates and highways indicate their prevailing direction by their route number. All the even-numbered interstates and highways generally travel from east to west, and odd-numbered interstates and highways go from north to south.

Even numbered interstates (east/west) are numbered smallest to largest, starting in the south and increasing to 100 as you move north. For example, Interstate 10 is the southernmost interstate. It runs from New Orleans to Los Angeles. I-20 is north of I-10 and runs from Kent, Texas to Florence, South Carolina.

Odd numbered interstates (north/south) are numbered lowest to highest starting from the west coast and increasing as you move east. I-5 is on the west coast, and I-95 is on the east coast.

When a city has an interstate that routes traffic circuitously around the heart of the city, the interstate is given a three-digit number in the 200, 400, or 600 range. It derives its number from the interstate that it branches from. In Dallas, for example, the LBJ Freeway is numbered I-635 because it loops around Dallas branching from I-35.

Interstates are marked with mile markers, one every mile. Mile markers on an interstate begin at the border of each new state. They start with zero at the southern border and increase as you move north for odd numbered or north/south interstates. They start with zero at the western border of the state increasing as you move east for the even numbered or east/west routes.

If an interstate does not start at the state's border, the mile markers begin numbering at the start of the interstate.

Normally, you would expect that the street address of a location on an interstate would be the mile marker number. Nearby Explorer currently contains a bug that returns a street number for interstates that are close to the street numbers of nearby streets.

The exits on an interstate are indicated by the mile marker. Exit 5 is always located between mile marker 5 and 6. If there are two or more exits within a mile, their designation includes both the mile marker and a suffix letter. If there were three exits at marker 5, they would be labeled 5A, 5B, and 5C.

When you see exits in the map data, they are treated like streets, but the street name is the exit number. Therefore, it is not uncommon to have streets entering and exiting the interstate with names such as 8 or 8A.

Interstates are named with "I-" followed by the interstate number. I-40 E refers to the eastbound lanes of Interstate 40.

US highways are labeled with the prefix "US-" followed by the route number. US-67 refers to US Highway, Route 67.

State highways are named with the state abbreviation followed by the highway number as in IN-62 for Indiana Highway 62.

County roads are labeled with "County Road" or some abbreviation such as "CR" followed by the number of the road as in CR 1429.

Approaching

If the Approaching item on NE's Nearby screen is checked, it alerts you about proximate streets as you approach them.

If the street is a cross street, NE says the street name and "ahead." If NE recognizes the street as only to the right or left, it adds "Right Side" or "Left Side" to its announcement of the street name.

Distance Updates

In addition to announcing the side of the street, NE also estimates and provides the distance to that intersection. As you approach the street, the distance is updated to reflect your changing position.

If you do not want to hear the progressive, distance updates, follow these steps:

  1. Highlight the Approaching option in the Nearby screen.
  2. Press and hold the item until the menu appears.
  3. Uncheck the Continuous Distance Update item.

Guidance

The Guidance setting displays the next maneuver to take (in the directions) when you set a place as a destination. As an example, it might say, "In 30 yards north, turn left on Main St."

To set a place as a Destination, follow these steps:

  1. Open the Map Search or Favorites option in the program menu, or press and hold the Guidance option on the main screen and select Recent from the context menu. The app displays a list of Places.
  2. Select the POI. Ne shows a menu of actions for favorites and searches. For recent destinations, NE sets the destination immediately.
  3. Select Set as Destination

When you set a destination, Nearby Explorer announces the route type (pedestrian or vehicle) and the distance and time to arrive at the destination. Note that a quirk in Talkback, the Android screen reader, can cut off this announcement if you have your text-to-speech engine set to the same engine that Talkback uses. To avoid cutting off the speech, use different TTS engines for Nearby Explorer and Talkback. To change Nearby Explorer's TTS engine, go to Menu/More/Settings/Select TTS Engine.

Each time you set a destination, Nearby Explorer adds it to its list of recent destinations. The program remembers the last 20 places to which you requested guidance. When you add the 21st item, the oldest destination gets bumped off the list.

When using the guidance function, keep in mind that streets are marked at their center line. Therefore, when Nearby Explorer says, "Turn left on Maple in 30 yards," you will need to take into consideration the width of the street.

Guidance and Directions

When you acquire a list of Favorites or search results, you may obtain directions to that location or receive guidance as you travel there. These directions and guidance are optimized for either pedestrian or vehicle travel. To select pedestrian directions, select Pedestrian from the Route Settings menu.

Route Settings

Route settings customize the kinds of routes and directions NE creates. To change how NE calculates the route, select Route Settings from the Settings menu.

The route settings include route optimizations for fastest time, shortest distance, or least turns (main roads) and check boxes to let you specify if you want to use highways, unpaved roads, toll roads, and ferries in the route calculations.

Directions

To receive a list of directions, highlight the POI, then press Select. From the menu that appears, choose Get Directions. NE displays a list of directions. Each step provides the direction and distance to the next procedure in the route.



Figure 5. List of directions to a POI

As you move toward the destination, the distance and direction of the first maneuver is updated, so it stays current. When you reach that point, the first maneuver is removed from the list, and the second one becomes the current maneuver.

Guidance

For guidance while you travel to the POI, choose Set as Destination from the menu. NE responds by adding the first step of the directions in the Nearby screen's Guidance field. It also updates the Guidance field, so the next maneuver is announced as you move. The information in the Guidance field always contains the current distance and direction to the next maneuver.

Change to or from Pedestrian Mode

To switch to or from Pedestrian mode while using the Guidance feature follow these steps:

  1. Highlight Guidance on the main screen.
  2. Press and hold until a context menu appears.
  3. Select Route Settings from the context menu.
  4. Check or uncheck the Pedestrian Mode setting.

If there are other route settings to change, adjust them here as well. NE automatically recalculates the route based on the new settings.

Directions During Guidance

To display a list of remaining directions to the destination while using the Guidance feature (1) shift to the Guidance item on the Nearby Screen, (2) press and hold Select to display the context menu, and (3) choose Directions.

If you set a Destination to a location that is not on the road network, Nearby Explorer guides you to the nearest address in the network. From that point on, NE will only provide a distance and direction to the POI. However, since there are no roads, and paths are not included, it can only give you a "crow's flight" estimate of the POI's location in space. In other words, if you set a Destination for the middle of a large field or parking lot, Guidance can only direct you to the nearest street address. From then on, NE provides only the distance and direction to help pinpoint the location.

Nearby and Nearby Distance

The Nearby Places item on the Nearby screen indicates the closest POI to your current location. If you check the Nearby Distance checkbox, NE announces the distance and direction to that POI and continually updates the information as you approach and then leave that location.

The Nearby feature includes both POIs included in the maps and Favorites you mark yourself.

Point to Nearby Places with Geobeam



Figure 6. How Geobeam works

Since your device knows both your current location and the location of points of interest around you, it is possible to use the device's compass to point at features in the environment and receive feedback about that feature. The feedback is received as a vibration, a sound, and an announcement with the name and distance of the POI. The vibration, in particular, makes pinpointing places both intuitive and easy. Think of this feedback as a beam emitting from the end of the device which you can use to point directly to features in the environment. As long as you maintain the direction, the vibration continues. You can use this vibration to guide you to the point.

Caution: There may be obstructions between you and the POI. Nearby Explorer cannot know about certain environmental barriers that may exist between you and the point. You must use traditional mobility techniques to ensure the path is safe or to follow a safe path to the point.

The tone also conveys information about the distance of the object to which you point. The higher the pitch, the closer you are to that point. Note that the speech also announces the distance, but the tone can be used to quickly get an idea about which objects are closest as you scan the environment. Note, too, that the tone is important for those devices, like the Nexus 7 tablet, that do not contain a vibrator.

There are two ways to position your device to use Geobeam. For both positions, the "business end" is considered the short end of the device. If you were holding the device like a phone, the compass pointer would be at the top. To engage Geobeam in the first position, hold the device horizontally to the ground and out in front of you, (as though you were handing it to someone), pointing the business end in the direction of the POI. The screen should be facing skyward.

In this position, NE lets you know about the closest POI when you point to it. If you have a destination or a watch set, use the device in this position to find the destination or watch point.

The second position is the normal Geobeam operating position. It is achieved by rotating the device 90 degrees counter clockwise from position 1, (as though you were shaking hands with someone). In this position, the screen faces to the left.

As you move your device into this position, Nearby Explorer makes a sound and indicates Geobeam as its provider. When you move it out of Geobeam position, NE makes another sound and, if you have the Provider item on the Nearby screen checked, announces the new provider of the information. This will usually be "GPS."

Point the end of the device in different directions while maintaining its orientation. When the end of the device points to a point of interest, NE makes a sound, vibrates, and announces the name of the place and its distance.

When using the Geobeam, be sure to take notice of these characteristics:

To turn Geobeam off, uncheck its setting in the Menu/More/Settings screen. Doing so lets you position the phone without getting feedback about nearby places.

If Geobeam does not behave as you expect, you may check the Use Old Style Orientation Sensor option in the Settings dialog to help fine tune the behavior.

Nearby Places Addresses

In addition to the name of the item or location, Nearby Explorer can provide the address of the nearest place. The address is a useful tool in determining information, such as which side of the street a place is located or that a place resides on a different street than the one on which you are located. On the other hand, it also adds lots of "chattering," especially when traveling by vehicle. Nearby Explorer tries to minimize the chatter by providing the address in a shorthand form. If the place is on the same street on which you are traveling, NE announces only the number on that street. If the place resides on another street, NE announces only that street name.

To set whether or not to announce the address along with the name of the place, follow these steps:

  1. Press Menu to open the Nearby Explorer menu.
  2. Select Settings.
  3. To hear the address, check the option Include Street Address in Nearby Place. To not hear the address, make sure this is unchecked.

A Note About Addresses

Remember that the addresses to places are approximate. You cannot count on the reported address to be exact. The maps do not contain the actual address. You may try turning on the Google addresses to see if those report more accurately in your area. See Settings/Use Google for Street Addresses.

Adjust Nearest Place Behavior

If you do not have a network connection, Nearby Explorer uses the points of interest in its database to identify nearby places. If you have a data connection, it uses the Google Places service instead. This service can provide POIs in interesting and useful ways.

The Google Places service provides as many as 20 place results and up to two political/municipal results for each search request. Therefore, it can provide different, more general, or more meaningful results by increasing the radius of the search. Google allows a radius of up to approximately 30 miles.

By default, Nearby Explorer uses a radius of about 170 yards to help identify the nearest place. This radius usually provides adequate information about almost any small business, government facility, or other place in relative proximity. If you are located where there are few businesses or institutions, or if you reduce the radius, the results of places can be reduced until the municipal results are all that remain. Municipal results include names of streets, street intersections, neighborhoods, townships, states, and even whole continents if there are no other places nearby.

To change the radius that Nearby Explorer uses to identify the nearest place or search result, follow these steps:

  1. Highlight the Nearby Distance item on the Nearby screen.
  2. To decrease the radius, press Left Arrow.
  3. To increase the radius, press Right Arrow.
  4. To select the smallest radius, press Alt+Left Arrow.
  5. To select the largest radius, press Alt+Right Arrow.

If you use a device with no arrow keys, hold Select on the Nearby Distance item and pick Set Radius from the context menu. Nearby Explorer responds with a menu from which you may select the desired radius.

In addition to using the Nearby Distance item on the main screen with the Left Arrow and Right Arrow or using the context menu, you can use the Search command from the program's menu. When you receive the list of search results, you can use Right Arrow and Left Arrow to increase and decrease the search radius, you may press the two list items at the end of the list; either "Increase Search Radius" or "Decrease Search Radius," or you may pick Radius from the Search screen menu to select the radius from a menu.

Finally, you may change the radius while using Geobeam with Volume selection.

Each time you change the radius, Nearby Explorer announces the new radius and queries for a new set of results from Google Places. If the results of the new search are different from those of the previous one, and you have the Nearby Places item checked, the app announces the new location that it considers closest, based on your new radius. In addition, if you have the Nearby Distance item checked, the app announces the distance and direction to that location.

If you are traveling in a vehicle, it makes little sense to use a small radius, especially in a tightly populated area. As you travel, increase the radius based on the environment and your personal preferences.

Watch

The Watch function is used to monitor a particular point of interest. It is most effective as a reference and orientation tool. When you monitor a POI, Nearby Explorer always displays the distance and direction to the Watch point from your current position. To set a place as a Watch, follow these steps:

  1. Select a search result or a Favorite.
  2. Press Select to open the menu of options for that POI.
  3. Select Set as Watch.

If you have the Watch box checked on the Nearby screen, NE monitors and announces the distance and direction to the place you are watching.

If you set a Watch position, the compass in your device can also be used to point to the Watch point. As you point at the watched position, your device vibrates to let you know where that position is located in real time. For example, you could set the location of your car in a large parking lot as a Watch point and be able to locate it later without difficulty. If you clear the Watch point, by default your device vibrates when pointed at the next closest POI delineated in the Nearby Place item on the main screen. To turn off these vibration signals, clear the checkbox on the Watch item.

About Distance and Direction

If Nearby Explorer detects that the direction you are heading coincides with the direction to a Nearby Place, it tries to simplify the directions by using "ahead" or "behind" instead of a compass direction. For example, if you were traveling north along Main St. and there was a library 100 yards north, NE might say, "Library Branch 100 yards ahead" instead of "Library Branch 100 yards North."

Latitude and Longitude

The Latitude and Longitude items in the Nearby screen show the current values of these positions.

Latitudes and longitudes are lines drawn on a map to precisely pinpoint any location on earth. Together, these values are commonly called a lat/long value or a geocoded position.

You do not need to know about latitudes and longitudes to effectively use the software, but they can be useful in some situations. Once you leave the road network, these values still provide relevant positioning information.

Latitudes are equally distant horizontal lines that circle the earth with the zero parallel at the equator and the 90th parallels at the North and South poles. (Much of the U.S. and Canadian border lies on the 49th parallel north (or 49N latitude line). As you move north or south from the equator, the numbers increase, and the position is expressed with N or S prefixed to the number that represents the value. Some commonly known latitudes are:

Longitudes are vertical lines expressed as east or west of the prime meridian, which is located close to London at Greenwich, England. The vertical lines start at the prime meridian with zero and go to 180 on the opposite side of the earth. The lines all converge at the North and South Poles; as the lines get closer to the equator, the farther apart they are. As you move east or west, the numbers increase from the zero prime. Boston's longitude is W 70. Some longitude references use a negative sign (-) rather than a W notation to denote longitudes west of the prime. This software uses the W.

Following is a list of common longitudes in the United States; all are west of the prime meridian.

The latitudes and longitudes are expressed as degrees, but they are more precisely denoted with minutes and seconds as well. This notation method is called Degree-Minute-Second (DMS).

There are a number of ways to represent latitudes and longitudes. The combination method this software uses expresses degrees and minutes separated by a colon, followed with a period and a fraction of a minute with three digit precision. This amount of precision works out so that each change in the fractional part equates to a few yards.

If the Latitude or Longitude item is checked in the Nearby screen, NE minimizes the amount of speech by announcing only the parts of the number that change. For instance, if you were at longitude W 85:42.815 and you moved a little farther west into W 85:42.816, NE announces only "W 816." The W lets you know the number is a longitude, and the "816" lets you know the finer detail. As you continue to travel west, the longitude cycles through to 999 and then to goes to W 85:43.000. When that change occurs, NE announces the whole number.

Use Latitude and Longitude announcements in places away from the road network where you may want finer detail than street addresses or when you want to pinpoint locations in open spaces.

To enter a location by its latitude and longitude, follow these steps:

  1. From the Nearby screen, press and hold Select until the context menu appears.
  2. Select Enter Location as Favorite.
  3. Type the latitude and longitude in the area provided. NE recognizes lat/long values in either decimal or combination format.
  4. Press Down Arrow to get to the Name field to navigate.
  5. Type a name for the new POI.
  6. Press OK.

NE adds this new POI as a Favorite.

Adjust Precision of Reports

Depending on how you want to use the program, Nearby Explorer offers some flexibility about how it announces lat/long values and how it allows you move around the map using these precision settings.

By default, the program uses three digits of precision after the decimal to announce changes and permit movement on the map. Three decimal places of precision is equal to a few yards movement, depending on exactly how far you are from the equator. To get notifications about finer movement, increase the precision to four digits after the decimal. This degree of precision amounts to just a few inches. Unfortunately, today's satellite receivers are not accurate enough to use that amount of precision. If you set four digits of precision, and you have the Latitude or Longitude items checked, you will likely experience constantly changing numbers and consistent chatter.

To lessen the frequency of notifications, decrease the precision.

To alter the precision of lat/long tools, follow these steps:

  1. Highlight either the Latitude or the Longitude item on the Nearby screen.
  2. Hold Select until the context menu appears.
  3. Select Set Speech Precision from the menu.
  4. Select the desired precision.

Explore the Map

While Nearby Explorer keeps track of your location as you move, it can also provide information about other places while you remain stationary or move about virtually.

The program provides several methods for map exploration, such as using the Go To option (explained shortly) from the result of the Explore, Search, or Favorites tools or using the movement tools provided on the Nearby screen.

When you explore the map, NE stops using the GPS signal to indicate your position on the map and uses what you set as its location instead. NE indicates that it is using this virtual location by employing the "Virtual" option in the "Provider" item on the main screen.

To VIRTUALLY shift to another city or state, see Search.

To resume using the GPS signal as the provider of your location, select Resume from the program's main menu.

Explore with Lat/Long Movement

To explore the map using latitude or longitude movements, do the following:

  1. Check the appropriate items that you wish announced on the Nearby screen.
  2. Highlight either Latitude or Longitude on the Nearby screen.
  3. Press Left Arrow to move south on the latitude or west on the Longitude.
  4. Press Right Arrow to move north or east.

Note that on a touch screen device you will need to go to Map View mode to navigate.

Using the left and right arrow keys on the Latitude and Longitude items on the main screen, is a quick way to make a few movements on the map, but if you want to explore in more depth, use Navigation Mode. When navigation mode is in use, you may use all four arrow keys to explore the map. As you move, Nearby Explorer notifies you about any of the items checked on the main screen. To turn on Navigation Mode you (1) hold Select until the context menu appears and (2) check the Navigation Mode option.

In Navigation Mode, the four arrow keys move as follows:

By default, each arrow key press moves 20 yards. You may change the movement distance by following these steps:

  1. Press menu.
  2. Select Set Movement Distance
  3. Choose the distance you wish to move from the menu that appears and then press Select.

To exit Navigation Mode, press Select.

Accuracy

The Accuracy setting provides a number to be considered as a range. For instance, if NE shows "2 Yards" the program is fairly confident that it knows your position within 2 yards. The smaller the number, the more accurate you should consider Nearby Explorer's information.

Number of Satellites

The number of satellites affects the accuracy. The more satellites, the better the accuracy. You need at least four satellites to get an accurate position. It is not unusual to get 11 or 12. If you have the box checked for Number of Satellites, NE will announce the available number and update changes.

Favorites

In addition to the POIs in the maps, you can add your own places. Nearby Explorer calls these Favorites.

Favorites are treated like Nearby Places. As you approach a Favorite, NE announces its name and location.

Favorites have one distinct advantage over POIs in the map data which is that you can mark a position more precisely than the ones provided in the maps. You may, for example, wish to mark the exact position of the front door to a restaurant or business. Remember the map data puts addresses just on either side of the street's center line.

Another advantage of Favorites is you may denote POIs that may not be of interest to anyone else, such as a mailbox, trashcan, or park bench. Once you pinpoint the POI, save it as a Favorite, and you will not miss it again. Finally, you may publish Favorites (explained shortly). When you publish a Favorite, other people using Nearby Explorer recognize that Favorite as part of the online map data from the Google Places service. (Note: A data connection is required to use this feature.)

To set your current location as a Favorite, follow these steps:

  1. Move to the location you wish to mark. Make sure you do not stop in a street, on a railroad, or in any other area where it is unsafe to mark your position. Instead, as an example, mark the entrance to the railroad track.
  2. Check the Accuracy setting to make sure you are getting a good signal. You may even wish to check the latitude and longitude for consistency before you decide to mark the position. Approach the position for several days to ensure the lat/long values are consistent.
  3. Press and hold Select to display Nearby Explorer's context menu.
  4. Select Save as Favorite. NE responds by displaying a dialog box where you may type a new name or press the OK button to accept the automatically generated name. The automatically generated name consists of the nearest address.

It is useful to give favorite places meaningful names that more precisely describe the marked position. When marking the door to a restaurant, for example, use exact wording to distinguish that Favorite from the more general POI in the maps. "Side Door to Wendy's" distinguishes the entrance from the map data's more general "Wendy's" moniker.

To display a list of your Favorites, press Menu to open the program menu and select Favorites.

The Favorites list organizes your Favorites by their distance from your current position, so the closest places are listed first.

Each item in the list shows the name of the Favorite, its distance and direction from your current position, and the nearest address to the location.



Figure 7. A list of Favorites

To rename a Favorite, follow these steps:

  1. Press Menu to open the Nearby Explorer program menu.
  2. Select Favorites. NE responds by displaying the Favorites list.
  3. Use Up Arrow or Down Arrow to select the Favorite to rename.
  4. Press Select. NE responds by displaying the context menu.
  5. Select Rename from the context menu. NE displays a dialog box with the current name.
  6. Edit the current name or type a new one.
  7. Press the OK button.

To delete a Favorite, follow these steps:

  1. Press Menu to open the Nearby Explorer program menu.
  2. Select Favorites from the menu.
  3. Use Up Arrow or Down Arrow to highlight the Favorite you wish to delete.
  4. Press Select to open the options menu for Favorites.
  5. Select Delete from the options menu.

Adjust Favorite

To fine tune the placement of a favorite to the current position, follow these steps:

Publish

To share your Favorites, follow these steps:

  1. Ensure that you have a network connection.
  2. Select Favorites from the Nearby Explorer main menu.
  3. Highlight the Favorite to share. Make sure you have named the Favorite so it is meaningful to others.
  4. Press Select to open the options menu.
  5. Select Publish. Nearby Explorer displays a list of categories.
  6. Select the category that most accurately describes the Favorite.
  7. Press Select.

Transit

Nearby Explorer uses transit feeds for several transit systems to provide information about public transit.

To use the Transit feature in a supported metropolitan area, press Transit from the program's menu. If you are in a metropolitan area with more than one transit system, NE displays a menu of the systems available. If you will always use the same transit system, and you do not want to see the menu each time, highlight the one you prefer, press and hold Select, and then choose Set as Default from the context menu that appears. To remove the default, choose Clear Default Transit System from the menu on the initial Transit screen. Once you choose a transit system, Nearby Explorer's Transit Stop screen displays a list of all the transit stops within 350 yards of your current position, with the closest stop listed first.



Figure 8. The Transit Stop screen

To broaden the search radius, press Right Arrow.

Each list item contains the following information:

To see a list of all the means of transport that service a particular stop, select one of the stops. NE displays a screen with all the vehicles that service that stop.

The modes of transport are represented by a list of circuits starting with the next circuit. Each line item contains the following information:



Figure 9. The Modes of Transportation screen

To follow a route, select a stop. NE responds by showing all the stops on that route.

Schedules

To see a complete schedule for the selected transportation mode, select a stop. NE responds with a menu containing Go To and Schedule. Pick Schedule from the menu. NE displays a list of all the times the selected bus or train stops at that location, highlighting the next scheduled stop.



Figure 10. The Schedule screen

To move to earlier times, press Up Arrow.

To move to later times, press Down Arrow.

To see a different day, press Right Arrow for the next day or Left Arrow for the previous day or pick the day gfrom one of the buttons at the bottom of the screen.

To identify buses/trains at other stops, press Back to get to the Nearby Stops screen and select another stop.

Updating Transit Schedules

Nearby Explorer uses an automated system to keep its transit information up-to-date. Whenever one of the participating transit authorities changes the schedule, NE downloads the schedule the next time your device has a network connection.

If your local area does not support Google Transit, see Google's Transit Page for information about requesting the transit authority in your area to participate.

Here is a list of the current supported areas:

Nearby Explorer assists you with finding businesses, institutions, addresses, and places that relate to a specific topic.

Once you find a business, you can do one of several things, depending upon the information available for that location. These things include receiving directions or guidance, adding it to your Favorites, travel to it virtually on the map, or even visiting the business's web page in the browser.

If you have a network connection, the search results are enhanced with the Google Places service. This service provides more timely and accurate information about places than what may be provided with the onboard maps. It also provides search results based on a search radius that behaves in interesting and useful ways. Read more about the way the search radius effects Places in the Adjust Nearest Place Behavior section of this documentation.

Nearby Explorer can search within approximately a 30 mile radius of your actual or virtual position. To initiate a search with another location than your own, first search for a city and state and then search for the place of interest.

To search for POIs in another city or state, you must switch to that city first. To do this, follow these steps:



Figure 11. A list of matching cities

NE responds by displaying a list of matching cities and the county in which that city is located. Each item in the list also indicates that city's distance and direction from your current location. Pick the city of interest and press Select.

NE responds with a City Action menu containing either Go To or Search.

To move the virtual position to that city and return to the Nearby screen, choose Go To.

To display search results from that city, choose Search.

To search the map for other cities, streets, or POIs, pick Search from the Nearby Explorer menu or press the Search selection. NE responds by displaying a Search Results activity screen that includes an edit box, three buttons, and a list of POIs around you.



Figure 12. A list of POIs on the Search screen

The types of items that appear in this list depend on your network connection, the search radius setting, your location, any terms you have typed, and any categories you have specified.

These POIs are arranged so the closest one appears at the top of the list. Each list item shows the name of the place, its category, and its distance and direction from your current or virtual position.

If you have a network connection, the list item also includes the POI's address as obtained from Google Places.

To show places related to a term you type, follow these steps:

  1. Press Up Arrow until you get to the Search edit box.
  2. Type a word that is in the name or address of the desired place.
  3. Press Down Arrow to the Search Nearby Places button.
  4. Press Select. NE responds by displaying a list that is restricted to items matching the term you typed.


Figure 13. The edit box in the Search menu

Nearby Explorer automatically increases the search radius to about 30 miles when you provide a specific term to find.

If you have a network connection, Nearby Explorer provides search results from the Google Places service. The search results screen indicates the presence of a network connection by putting "Online" in the search results title. It also puts the default radius for the search in the title. You may increase and decrease the radius in the search results screen by pressing the right or left arrow keys.

Initially, the list shows all POIs in all categories, but you may restrict the list to more manageable subsets.

To select categories of search results, follow these steps:

  1. From the Search results screen, press Menu.
  2. Choose Select Categories from the menu. NE displays a list of categories. Each item has a selectable checkbox, and they are all checked by default.
  3. To clear all categories, press the Clear All button.
  4. Check the categories of interest.
  5. Press Back to return to the search results. NE displays a new list using the parameters you selected.

When you highlight and select a POI, Nearby Explorer displays a menu of actions from which to choose. The menu includes Add to Favorites, Go To, Get Directions, Get Guidance, and other possible options depending on the information that is available for that POI.

Intersections

If you use Google Places for searching, you can find intersections as well as POIs. To find an intersection, type the names of the two streets of interest, separated by the word "and." For example, a search of "Main and Maple" would find the intersection for Main and Maple streets.

Geocache

Geocaching is a globally-popular treasure hunting game. Clues to "caches" come to you in the form of lat/long values provided by a Web site such as www.geocaching.com.

The cache is usually a small trinket and a log of the dates when the treasure was found. When you discover the cache, you register the log and replace the trinket with one of similar or greater value.

To enter a location by its latitude and longitude, follow the steps listed in the Latitude and Longitude section of this document.

You can use NE to provide you with approximate directions to geocaching POIs. However, in most cases, you must set the POI as a Watch point, and then allow the app to display the distance and direction to that POI once you leave the road network.

Explore

While Nearby Explorer does not yet have a good mode to explore the road network, it does provide some interesting ways to explore the map from several perspectives.

To see the Explore screen, press Menu and choose Explore.

NE displays a list of intersections on the current street. It also displays a "Streets" button and a "Go To" button.



Figure 14. The Explore menu

Each intersection in the list shows the name of the intersecting street, the distance and direction to that intersection, and in which direction the street runs.

If you were on Maple Street between 1st and 2nd Streets and opened the Explore view, you might see a list like the following:

  1. 1st Street 100 yards north heading east
  2. 2nd Street 50 yards north heading east and west
  3. 3rd Street 20 yards south heading east and west
  4. 4th Street 70 yards south heading east and west

Nearby Explorer highlights the closest intersection to your current location. When you open this view, the cursor will be on the 2nd Street or 3rd Street item depending on which is closest.

To turn onto one of the streets listed, highlight the street and press Select. NE displays a new list with all the intersections on the new street. Of course, one of those intersections is the street you were on when you pressed Select, so the list might look like the following:

Since the intersection of 2nd and Maple is closest, NE highlights the street "Maple" in the list.

When you get to the desired location, press the Go To button to return to the Nearby screen with your location set to the selected intersection.

The Streets button lets you examine the map by looking at nearby streets without regard for intersections. When you press the Streets button, NE shows a list of eight nearby streets, one for each of the following directions:

  1. North
  2. Northeast
  3. East
  4. Southeast
  5. South
  6. Southwest
  7. West
  8. Northwest

Each list item contains the street name, its distance, and its direction from the current position.

To go to one of the streets in the list, highlight the street name, and then press Select. NE responds by shifting to the selected street and making it the current location. It then places the approximate address in the title of the screen, and populates the list with the eight streets closest to the new location. NE also maintains the list item number, so if you are on the third item in the list when you press Select, the new list is displayed with the third item highlighted. It is possible, therefore, to move continuously in an easterly direction by scrolling down to the street east of the current location, then continuing to press Select to consecutively pick the next street heading east.

The default distance for Streets is 1000 yards. If NE does not perceive another street in the indicated direction within the allotted distance, it enables you to move in that direction by the indicated distance.

While moving to nearby streets can be useful, making larger movements on the map can be tedious using this method. The "1 Mile" button changes the street list from streets that are near your current position to streets that are 1 mile from the current position. When you press the 1 Mile button, NE changes the list of streets to reflect the new distance selection. It also changes the 1 Mile button to a 10 Mile button. Pressing the 10 Mile button changes the street list to streets that are 10 miles away. When using 10 miles, the button changes back to Intersections. Use the 10 Mile button to make large movements; use the Streets or 1 Mile button to make finer moves.

Other Information

If you make or receive a phone call while Nearby Explorer is working, the program mutes the announcements until the phone call is complete.

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If the Contracting Officer, federal government agency, or any federal official refuses to use the legend provided herein, the Contracting Officer, federal government agency, or any federal official must notify NAVTEQ prior to seeking additional or alternative rights in the Data.

Hot Keys

If you have a device with a keyboard or connect a Bluetooth keyboard, you may press letters to start functions in Nearby Explorer.

The following keys are available. Note that while they are shown in upper case for clarity, the hot keys are in lower case: Key
ExploreE
FavoritesF
Set Movement Distance for Navigation ModeM
Toggle Navigation ModeN
Route SettingsR
SettingsS
TransitT
SearchSearch