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RC Snap Rover® Instructional Manual

Ages 8-108

American Printing House for the Blind

Export BRF File

UEB compliant

WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect Snap Circuits® to the electrical outlets in your home in any way!

A Note About the FCC

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates use of the radio frequency spectrum in the United States to prevent products from interfering with each other.

RC Snap Rover® has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. RC Snap Rover® generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If RC Snap Rover® does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning RC Snap Rover® off and on, try to correct the interference by:

  1. Moving RC Snap Rover® away from the receiver.
  2. Contacting Elenco® Electronics for help by calling (800) 533-2441, or e-mail us at .

FCC regulations for your RC Snap Rover® require you to accept any interference from authorized sources and that you shut down if you are causing interference with other authorized products.
You should never modify the electrical circuit components inside your R/C Receiver (RX1) or Remote Control transmitter as this may cause malfunctions or violate FCC regulations for this product. The carrier frequency is 27.145 MHz) and RF output power is 46 dBuV/m.

This device complies with RSS-310 of industry Canada Operation is subject to the condition that this device does not cause harmful interference.
Under industry Canada regulations, this radio transmitter may only operate using an antenna of a type and maximum (or lesser) gain approved for the transmitter by industry Canada. To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p) is not more than that necessary for successful communication.

Basic Troubleshooting

  1. Most circuit problems are due to incorrect assembly, always double-check that your circuit exactly matches the written instruction for it.
  2. Be sure that parts with positive/negative markings are positioned as per the grid number listed in the instructions.
  3. Be sure that all connections are securely snapped.
  4. Try replacing the batteries in the Rover body and remote control unit.
  5. Keep the wheels clean and free of lint, thread, or dirt.

Elenco® Electronics is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.

Note: If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow the Advanced Troubleshooting procedure on page 8 to determine which ones need replacing.

WARNING: Always check your wiring before turning on a circuit. Never leave a circuit unattended while the batteries are installed. Never connect additional batteries or any other power sources to your circuits. Discard any cracked or broken parts.

Adult Supervision

Because children’s abilities vary so much, even with age groups, adults should exercise discretion as to which experiments are suitable and safe (the instructions should enable supervising adults to establish the experiment’s suitability for the child). Make sure your child reads and follows all of the relevant instructions and safety procedures, and keeps them at hand for reference.

This product is intended for use by adults and children who have attained sufficient maturity to read and follow directions and warnings.
Never modify your parts, as doing so may disable important safety features in them, and could put your child at risk of injury. The packaging has to be kept since it contains important information.

Batteries

Conforms to all applicable U.S. government requirements and CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3 (B).

Warning to Snap Circuits® Owners: Do not use parts from other Snap Circuits® sets with this kit. The Snap Rover® uses higher voltage which could damage those parts. Page 22 has approved circuits that you can use.

Parts List

Important: If any parts are missing or damaged,* DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER*. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at: help@elenco.com. Customer Service • 150 Carpenter Ave. • Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.

Qty. ID Name Part#
1 Rover Body 6SCRB
1 Remote Control Unit 6SCTX1
2 1 1-Snap Wire 6SC01
6 2 2-Snap Wire 6SC02
2 3 3-Snap Wire 6SC03
1 4 4-Snap Wire 6SC04
1 5 5-Snap Wire 6SC05
1 6 6-Snap Wire 6SC06
1 7 7-Snap Wire 6SC07
1 C1 0.02µF Capacitor 6SCC1
2 C4 100µF Capacitor 6SCC4
1 D4 White LED 6SCD4
1 R1 100Ω Resistor 6SCR1
4 R2 1kΩ Resistor 6SCR2
1 RX1 R/C Receiver 6SCRX1
1 S1 Slide Switch 6SCS1
1 U8 Motor Control IC 6SCU8
1 W1 Horn 6SCW1
1 Jumper Wire (Orange) 6SCJ3A
1 Jumper Wire (Yellow) 6SCJ3B
1 Jumper Wire (Green) 6SCJ3C
1 Jumper Wire (Purple) 6SCJ3D
1 Jumper Wire (Gray) 6SCJ3E
1 Jumper Wire (White) 6SCJ3F
1 Base Grid 6SCBG

You may order additional / replacement parts at our web site: www.elenco.com/replacement-parts

How To Use It

Install six “AA” batteries (not included) into the bottom of the Rover body and one 9V battery (not included) into the remote control unit.

The R/C Snap Rover Kit uses building blocks with snaps to build the different electrical and electronic circuits in the projects. Each block has a function: there are switch blocks, LED blocks, different length wire blocks, etc. These blocks are in different colors and have numbers on them so that you can easily identify them. The circuit you will build is described in layers by part number and position, identifying the blocks that you will use and snap together to form a circuit.

For Example:

The switch block which is green and has the marking S1 on it.

The wire block comes in different wire lengths. You count the number of snap connectors to know which is required.

There is also a 1-snap wire that is used as a spacer or for interconnection between different layers.

A large clear plastic base grid is included with this kit to keep the circuit blocks together, it fits on top of the Rover body. You will feel evenly spaced posts that the different blocks snap into, these keep your circuit together. The base has rows labelled A-G and columns labelled 1-10. Within each project, there is a list of 'Parts Needed', and below that, a description of which layer they are to be placed and the grid coordinates to place them. Place all parts on level 1 first, then all of the parts on level 2, then all of the parts on level 3, etc. Jumper wires are used to connect your circuits to the batteries and motors in the Rover body. Snap them on as described in the projects. The colors are interchangeable, so it doesn’t matter which color you use.

Note: While building the projects, be careful not to accidentally make a direct electrical connection across the positive and negative snaps for the batteries (a “short circuit”), as this may damage and/or quickly drain the batteries.

Warning to Snap Circuits® owners: Do not use parts from other Snap Circuits® sets with this kit unless directed to do so. The Snap Rover® uses higher voltage which could damage those parts. Page 22 and our website www.elenco.com/product/snap-rover has approved circuits that you can use.

WARNING: CHOKING HAZARD - Small parts. Not for children under 3 years.

About Your Snap Circuits® Parts

(Part designs are subject to change without notice).

Warning to Snap Circuits® owners: Do not use parts from other Snap Circuits® sets with this kit. The Snap Rover® uses higher voltage which could damage those parts. Page 22 has approved circuits that you can use.

The base grid functions like the printed circuit boards found in most electronic products. It is a platform for mounting parts and wires (though the wires are usually “printed” on the board). The Snap Circuits® board has rows lettered from A to G, and columns numbered 1 to 10. The instructions for each project will use these coordinates for parts placement.

The blue snap wires are plastic strips with snaps embedded in them, and used to connect other components. They transport electricity and do not affect circuit performance. They come in different lengths to allow orderly arrangement of connections on the base grid. Count the snaps to determine which snap wire corresponds with the instructions of the project you are building.

The white, orange, yellow, green, gray, and purple jumper wires make flexible wire connections for times when using the snap wires would be difficult. They also are used to make connections off the base grid. Although the instructions refer to wire colors, the wires all work the same way, and are interchangeable.

The batteries (in the Rover body) produce an electrical voltage using a chemical reaction. This “voltage” can be thought of as electrical pressure, pushing electrical “current” through a circuit. This voltage is much lower and much safer than that used in your house wiring. Using more batteries increases the “pressure” and so more electricity flows. To install 6 AA batteries in the Rover, turn it upside down, unscrew one screw, remove the battery case cover, and locate the spring in each cavity. The negative, or flat side of the battery goes on the spring, the positive lug of the battery goes on the metal tab side. Positive and negative poles alternate with each battery.

The slide switch (S1) connects (ON) or disconnects (OFF) the wires in a circuit. When ON it has no effect on circuit performance. This part is bidirectional, with no positive or negative side. The switch has a braille S1 label and is in the open, or “on” position when moved to the side with the braille S1 label.

Resistors, such as the 100Ω resistor (R1) and 1KΩ resistor (R2), “resist” the flow of electricity and are used to control or limit the electricity in a circuit. Increasing circuit resistance reduces the flow of electricity. These are bidirectional with the four 1KΩ resistors labelled R2 and one 100Ω resistor labelled R1.

The LED (D4) is a light emitting diode, and may be thought of as a special one-way light bulb. In the “forward” direction, electricity flows if the voltage exceeds a turn-on threshold (about 3V); brightness then increases. A high current will burn out the LED, so the current must be limited by other components in the circuit. LEDs block electricity in the “reverse” direction. The unidirectional LED is labelled D4 with the braille label on the positive side. It faces forward when the braille label is on the right. It is very important to adhere to the instructions and place the positive snap on the exact coordinates specified by that project's instructions.

The 0.02μF (C1) and 100μF (C4) capacitors are components that can store electrical pressure (voltage) for periods of time, higher values have more storage. Because of this storage ability they block unchanging voltage signals and pass fast changing voltages. Capacitors are used for filtering and delay circuits. Large values have a positive side that should always be connected to the higher voltage. There are two unidirectional 100μF capacitors labelled C4 with a braille C4 label on the positive side. There is one 0.02μF capacitor labelled C1. This resistor is unidirectional and has no positive or negative side. These capacitors can also be identified by the shape of their capacitors, with the larger C4, 100μF capacitors having a cylindrical capacitor, and the smaller C1, 0.02μF capacitor having a flatter, square capacitor.

The horn (W1) converts electricity into sound by making mechanical vibrations. These vibrations create variations in air pressure which travel across the room. You “hear” sound when your ears feel these air pressure variations. The horn is labelled W1, is unidirectional, and has the braille W1 label on its positive side.

The R/C Receiver (RX1) is a complex module containing a radio receiver circuit, a specialized radio decoder integrated circuit, and other supporting components. It includes resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors that are always needed together. This was done to simplify the connections you need to make, otherwise this circuitry would not fit on the base grid. The receiver is labelled RX1 in braille, has its positive side labelled in braille, and A, B, and C positions on the channel switch labelled in braille. The channel switches on both the receiver and controller must correspond for the controller to communicate with the receiver. A description for this module is given here for those interested. With the antenna and positive braille label of the unit up, and starting with the top center snap at twelve o'clock and moving clockwise, each snap's function is listed below:

R/C Receiver:
(+) - power from batteries, twelve o'clock
LF - left forward output (active high), one o'clock
LB - left backward output (active high), two o'clock
RF - right forward output (active high), four o'clock
RB - right backward output (active high), five o'clock
(–) - power return to batteries, six o'clock
BYP2 - high frequency bypass, seven o'clock
BYP1 - low frequency bypass, eight o'clock
RBUT - right button function (active low), ten o'clock
LBUT - left button function (active low), eleven o'clock
ABC switch - selects radio channel, on top of unit.

See project One for a connection example.

Only connect this part as described in the projects!

The Motor Control (U8) module contains 16 transistors and resistors that are usually needed to control the motors. Both positive and negative sides will be indicated with a braille label. A description for this module is given here for those interested. With the positive braille label of the unit up, starting with the top center snap at twelve o'clock and moving clockwise, each snap's function is listed below:

Motor Control:
(+) - power from batteries, twelve o'clock
L – - left backward motor drive, one o'clock
L + - left forward motor drive, two o'clock
R – - right backward motor drive, four o'clock
R + - right forward motor drive, five o'clock
(–) - power return to batteries, six o'clock
RB - right backward control input, seven o'clock
RF - right forward control input, eight o'clock
LB - left backward control input, ten o'clock
LF - left forward control input, eleven o'clock

See project One for a connection example.

Only connect this part as described in the projects!

The motors (in the Rover body) convert electricity into mechanical motion. Electricity is closely related to magnetism, and an electric current flowing in a wire has a magnetic field similar to that of a very, very tiny magnet. Inside the motor is a coil of wire with many loops wrapped around metal plates. If a large electric current flows through the loops, it will turn ordinary metal into a magnet. The motor shell also has a magnet on it. When electricity flows through the coil, it magnetizes the metal plates and they repel from the magnet on the motor shell - spinning the shaft. A small gear is on the end of the shaft and spins with it. An explanation of the six snaps on the rear of the Rover body are listed below, left to right:

Rover Rear:
R – - right backward motor drive, top row left
L – - left backward motor drive, top row center
(+) - power from batteries, top row right
R + - right forward motor drive, bottom row left
L + - left forward motor drive, bottom row center
(–) - power return to batteries, bottom row right

How It Works

Remote Control Transmitter:
When the levers in the Remote Control Unit are pushed, electrical contacts are made connecting the 9V battery power to the transmitter, indicating which commands the user wants sent to the Rover. Forwards/Backwards commands for each set of wheels and two extra functions are controlled by different levers or buttons. Each of these use a different set of electrical contacts which encode a sequence of electrical pulses; the pulse sequence depends on which command(s) are being sent. The spacing between the sequences represents which channel setting (A-B-C) the remote control is on. This allows three units to use the same operating frequency in the same room at the same time without interfering with each other. An electrical circuit that is tuned to a frequency of 27 MHz creates a signal that is sent to the antenna when the pulses are active. The antenna converts this electrical energy into radio energy, creating a stream of radio energy bursts, which travel through the air and are picked up by, and understood by, the radio receiver in the car. The frequency of 27 MHz was selected for your Rover with the approval of the FCC (the US government) to minimize radio interference between this product and all other electrical products.

Radio Receiver:
The Rover antenna collects radio energy and converts it back into electrical energy. If the Rover is turned on, then the radio receiver in the Rover is continuously monitoring the radio energy from its antenna. The receiver is basically a filter which is tuned to amplify any energy around 27 MHz and block energy the antenna picks up outside this region. If the Remote Control Transmitter is sending commands, then its radio signal will be picked up by the receiver and converted back into the original pulse sequence. Decoding circuitry then determines which commands were sent by examining the pulses in the sequence. Signals are then sent to motors that drive the wheels to execute the commands, or the other R/C Receiver outputs to control other functions. Commands sent to other receivers using a different channel setting (A-B-C) are ignored.

Characteristics of Radio Reception:
Many factors affect the ability of the Rover to receive commands from its Remote Control Transmitter. A weak battery in the Transmitter will result in a weaker transmitted signal; if the battery is very weak then the Transmitter may not function at all. The Transmitter’s antenna transmits energy in all directions so as the range between it and the Rover is increased, less energy is received at the Rover. When operated with strong batteries and in an open area, the range will be at least 25 ft. Obstacles such as walls, furniture, and trees will degrade the radio signal’s ability to travel through air and reduce the operating range, but will never block it completely. In some cases more radio energy may travel from the Transmitter to the Rover by going around obstacles than by going through them. In the Rover, weak batteries will reduce power to the motor and degrade the receiver’s ability to filter, amplify, and decode commands from the Transmitter.

How It Works (continued)

Rover Drive Mechanism:
The small gear on the Motor drives a larger gear, which drives a larger gear, which drives two larger gears (one on each side), which drive larger gears. The last, largest gears are fixed on shafts that are attached to the front and back wheels, making them move. Note that interlocking gears spin in opposite directions. Also notice that in the sets of interlocking gears between the Motor and the gears on the wheel shafts, the number of “teeth” is increased each time (40-8, 44-8, 64-44, and 64-20), for 128:1 gear ratio overall. This means the Motor must rotate 128 times to rotate the wheels once. The reason for this is that if the Motor were to drive the wheels directly then the Rover would be so fast that it would be impossible to control. Using the gears to reduce the speed also makes the wheels move with much greater force, preventing the Rover from getting stuck in rough terrain and allowing it to carry heavy loads uphill.

General Operating Instructions

Build the circuit for projects 1 or 2. Set the channel switches on the remote control unit and R/C Receiver module (RX1) to the same setting (A, B, or C). Place the Rover on a flat, open area, turn the ON/OFF switch on the remote control unit and the slide switch (S1) to ON, on the Remote Control.

  1. Push both levers forward to make Snap Rover® go forward.
  2. Push both levers backward to go backward.
  3. Push the left lever backward and the right lever forward to turn left.
  4. Push the left lever forward and the right lever backward to turn right.

The buttons on the remote control unit are used to control sounds or lights (or other special functions) as described in the projects.

Never operate Snap Rover® in the street.

Never drive your Rover in rain, snow, mud, sand, dirt, or on a wet floor, as damage may result.

DO’s and DONT's of Building Circuits

After building the circuits given in this booklet, you may wish to experiment on your own. Use the projects in this booklet as a guide, as many important design concepts are introduced throughout them. Every circuit will include a power source (the batteries), a resistance (which might be a resistor, motor, integrated circuit, etc.), and wiring paths between them and back. You must be careful not to create “short circuits” (very low-resistance paths across the batteries, see examples below) as this will damage components and/or quickly drain your batteries. Only connect the ICs using configurations given in the projects, incorrectly doing so may damage them. Elenco® Electronics is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.

Here are some important guidelines:
ALWAYS use eye protection when experimenting on your own.
ALWAYS include at least one component that will limit the current through a circuit, such as a resistor, motor, horn, or the RX1 and ##U8 modules (which must be connected properly).
ALWAYS connect the 100µF capacitors so that the “+” side gets the higher voltage.
ALWAYS use the LED and switches in conjunction with other components that will limit the current through them. Failure to do so will create a short circuit and/or damage those parts.
ALWAYS disconnect your batteries immediately and check your wiring if something appears to be getting hot.
ALWAYS Check your wiring before turning on a circuit.
ALWAYS connect the RX1 and U8 modules using configurations given in the projects or as per the connection descriptions for the parts.
NEVER connect to an electrical outlet in your home in any way.
NEVER leave a circuit unattended when it is turned on.

For all of the projects given in this book, the parts may be arranged in different ways without changing the circuit. For example, the order of parts connected in series or in parallel does not matter — what matters is how combinations of these sub-circuits are arranged together.

WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect Snap Circuits to the electrical outlets in your home in any way!

Examples of SHORT CIRCUITS - NEVER DO THESE!!!

You are encouraged to tell us about new circuits you create. If they are unique, we will post them with your name and state on our website at www.elenco.com/for-makers. Send your suggestions to Elenco®: .

Warning to Snap Circuits® owners: Do not use parts from other Snap Circuits® sets with this kit except for the circuits on page 22. The Snap Rover® uses higher voltage which could damage those parts.

Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)

Elenco® Electronics is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.

If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow this procedure to systematically determine which ones need replacing:

1. Rover body and jumper wires: Flip the Rover body upside down and make sure the wheel mechanisms are clean. Install batteries in the Rover body and connect jumper wires to the Rover rear as described below:
  1. Attach a jumper wire from the top left snap of the Rover's rear panel, to the top center snap of the Rover's rear panel
  2. Attach a jumper wire from the bottom left snap of the Rover's rear panel to the bottom center snap of the Rover's rear panel

Two wheels should move. If not, replace the top and bottom jumper wires with unused jumper wires to see if either of the jumpers are damaged. If the wheels don’t move for any combination of wires, then the Rover body is damaged. Remove the wire that connects the top left snap with the top center snap; and four LEDs on the side should light.

With the Rover still upside down, test the other two wheels. Attach the jumper wires as described below:
  1. Attach a jumper wire from the top left snap of the Rover's rear panel, to the top right snap of the Rover's rear panel
  2. Attach a jumper wire from the bottom left snap of the Rover's rear panel to the bottom right snap of the Rover's rear panel

If the wheels don’t move, then the Rover body is damaged. Remove the top wire that connects the top left and top right snaps, and four LEDs on the side should light.

2. Slide switch (S1): Build project 6 (Helpless Rover) and test the switch by making it turn the wheels on/off.

3. Snap wires: Build project 6 but replace the switch with each of the snap wires (including the 1-snaps), test them one at a time

4. Horn (W1), LED (D4), 100Ω and 1KΩ resistors (R1, R2): Build the following mini-circuit and turn on the switch, the horn should make a loud noise or it is damaged. Replace the 3-snap with the 100W resistor, the sound should be a little less loud or the resistor is defective. Replace the horn with the LED (“+” side on left, and keep the resistor in), the LED should be bright or it is damaged. Now replace the 100W resistor with each of the 1KW resistors (one at time), the LED should still be bright or the resistor is damaged.

Parts needed

First Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  2. (W1) Horn on C8-C10 with the positive on C8

Second Layer

  1. 3-Snap Wire on A8-C8
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C10 and on the bottom right of the Rear Rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Purple) on A10 and on the top right of the Rear Rover

5. Motor Control (U8) module: Build the following circuit and turn it on, both sets of wheels should turn forward. Now shift the two 1KW resistors (R2) that connect to U8 down one snap so they are across the snaps labeled A-B and C-D; the wheels should turn backwards.

Parts needed

First Layer:

  1. (U8) Motor Control IC on C6-C8-F6-F8, with the positive on C6 and C8
  2. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  3. 6-Snap Wire on B4-G4
  4. 3-Snap Wire on B6-B8
  5. 3-Snap Wire on G6-G8

Second Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B4-B6
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C4-C6
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E4-E6
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on G4-G6
  5. 2-Snap Wire on B7-C7
  6. 2-Snap Wire on F7-G7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C8 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on E8 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on D8 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F8 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G8 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

6. 0.02μF and 100μF capacitors (C1, C4): Build project 14. Charge each of the 100µF capacitors as directed and test that it lights the LED, if it doesn’t then it is damaged. Now do this using the 0.02µF capacitor but look closely at the front of the LED, you should see a brief dim flash if the capacitor is working.

7. Remote control unit and R/C Receiver (RX1): Check that the light on the remote control turns on when you turn on its switch, and that its antenna wire is attached. Then use project 25 to test that the R/C receiver can receive commands from the buttons and levers on the remote control.

Elenco® Electronics, Inc. 150 Carpenter Avenue • Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.Phone: (847) 541-3800 • Fax: (847) 520-0085e-mail: help@elenco.com • Web site: www.elenco.com

You may order additional / replacement parts at: www.elenco.com/replacement-parts

IMPORTANT: All capacitors and LEDS have a positive and negative side. Their braille name label will always be on the positive side of the part. It is important to make sure the parts are always placed correctly, with positive side of the part placed exactly as specified.

Project 1: Night Rover

OBJECTIVE: To build a remote control vehicle that you can drive in the dark.

Parts needed

First layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C4-C6-F4-F6, with positive side of unit on C4 and C6
  2. (U8) Motor Control IC on C8-C10-F8-F10, with positive side of unit on C8 and C10
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  4. (D4) White LED on C1-E1 with positive on C1
  5. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  6. 6-Snap Wire on G5-G10
  7. 5-Snap Wire on C2-G2
  8. 3-Snap Wire on B7-B9

Second layer

  1. (W1) Horn on A4-C4 with positive on A4
  2. (C4) 100µF Capacitor A2-C2 with positive on A2
  3. (C4) 100µF Capacitor E2-E4 with positive on E4
  4. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor on F2-F4
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C6-C8
  6. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D6-D8
  7. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E6-E8
  8. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on F6-F8
  9. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on A1-C1
  10. 3-Snap Wire on A5-C5
  11. 2-Snap Wire on A7-B7
  12. 2-Snap Wire on A8-B8
  13. 2-Snap Wire on B9-C9
  14. 2-Snap Wire on F5-G5
  15. 2-Snap Wire on F9-G9
  16. 1-Snap Wire on G2
  17. 1-Snap Wire on E1

Third Layer

  1. 4-Snap Wire on G2-G5
  2. 2-Snap wire on E1-E2

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C10 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on E10 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on D10 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F10 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

The Snap Circuits® Kit uses electronic blocks that snap onto a clear plastic base grid to build different circuits. These blocks have different colors and numbers on them so that you can easily identify them.

Install six (6) “AA” batteries into the bottom of the Rover body and one 9V battery into the remote control unit (batteries not included). Place the base grid on the Rover body; you may lock it into position by turning the hexagonal alignment posts (shown here), if desired.

Each project will start with a Parts Needed list, followed by a list of layers. Each Layer will have an ordered list of instructions on where to place the parts on the Rover. Start at Layer One and then move down the list, building the layers in order. The number of Layers will vary with each project and some will have a Rover Rear step, also.
The C4 (green), U8 (green), RX1 (red), D4 (black), and W1 (clear) parts have corresponding braille labels. They also have positive and negative sides. The braille label will always be on the positive side of the circuit. It is very important to place the positive side of these circuits exactly as specified in the instructions, or a short circuit may occur. There are colored jumper wires that will attach the grid to the rear of the Rover body as well. Do not worry about color designations, all wires are interchangeable, with placement being most important. Set the channel switches on the remote control unit and R/C Receiver module (RX1) to the same setting (A, B, or C).
If there is more than one Rover in the area, each Rover and controller must be set to different A, B, and C channels.

Turn on the slide switch (S1), the LED (D4) shines. Turn on the remote control unit, extend the antenna, and use the levers to drive the Rover around. The left button on the remote control activates the horn (W1).

You can use Snap Rover® in a dark room since the LED (D4) is positioned as a headlight. Spin Snap Rover around and use caution when backing up.

Project 2: Remote Control Rover

OBJECTIVE: To build a remote control vehicle.

Parts needed

First layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C3-C5-F3-F5, with positive side of unit on C3 and C5
  2. (U8) Motor Control IC on C7-C9-F7-F9, with positive side of unit on C7 and C9
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  4. (W1) Horn on B2-D2 with positive on B2
  5. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  6. 6-Snap Wire on G4-G9
  7. 5-Snap Wire on C1-G1

Second layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on A1-C1 with positive on A1
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C5-C7
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D5-D7
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E5-E7
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on F5-F7
  6. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on E1-E3 with positive on E3
  7. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor on F1-F3
  8. (D4) White LED on A3-C3 with positive on A3
  9. 3-Snap Wire on A4-C4
  10. 3-Snap Wire on A8-C8
  11. 2-Snap Wire on F4-G4
  12. 2-Snap Wire on A2-B2
  13. 2-Snap Wire on D2-D3
  14. 2-Snap Wire on F8-G8
  15. 1-Snap Wire on A7
  16. 1-Snap Wire on G1

Third layer

  1. 4-Snap Wire on G1-G4
  2. 2-Snap Wire on A7-A8

Rear Rover

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C9 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on E9 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on D9 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F9 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Install six (6) “AA” batteries into the bottom of the Rover body and one 9V battery into the remote control unit (batteries not included). Place the base grid on the Rover body; you may lock it into position by turning the hexagonal alignment posts (shown here), if desired.

Build the circuits shown by placing all the parts listed on the First Layer in their specified location, and in the order listed. Continue on to the Second Layer placing the parts in their specified locations, and finally the parts listed for Layer Three and Rover Rear. Be sure to place the C4 (green), U8 (green), RX1 (red), D4 (black), and W1 (clear) parts with their (+) side oriented as shown. Connect the colored jumper wires to the rear of the body as shown (the colors are interchangeable). Set the channel switches on the remote control unit and R/C Receiver module (RX1) to the same setting (A, B, or C).

Turn on the slide switch (S1). Turn on the remote control unit, extend the antenna, and use the levers to drive the Rover around. The buttons on the remote control activate a horn (W1) or a light (the D4 LED).

Project 3: 4 Lights and Clicking

OBJECTIVE: To make a rotating light.

Parts needed

First layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on B10-D10
  2. 5-Snap Wire on B5-F5
  3. 4-Snap Wire on F7-F10
  4. 2-Snap Wire on B7-B8

Second layer

  1. (D4) White LED on B5-B7 with positive on B7
  2. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on F5-F7
  3. 3-Snap Wire on B8-B10

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on D10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on B10 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on F10 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on B10 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on F10 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, place the base grid centered on the Rover body, and connect the jumper wires as shown. Place the Snap Rover in the middle of a dimly lit room and turn on the slide switch (S1). The light will shine around the room as Snap Rover spins.

Project 4: Backwards Rover

*OBJECTIVE: To see if you can adapt to unusual controls.

Parts needed

First Layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C3-C5-F3-F5, with positive side of unit on C3 and C5
  2. (U8) Motor Control IC on C7-C9-F7-F9, with positive side of unit on C7 and C9
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  4. (W1) Horn on B2-D2 with positive on B2
  5. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  6. 6-Snap Wire on G4-G9
  7. 5-Snap Wire on C1-G1

Second Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on A1-C3 with positive on A1
  2. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on E1-E3 with positive on E3
  3. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor on F1-F3
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C5-C7
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D5-D7
  6. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E5-E7
  7. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on F5-F7
  8. (D4) White LED on A3-C3 with positive on A3
  9. 3-Snap Wire on A4-C4
  10. 3-Snap Wire on A8-C8
  11. 2-Snap Wire on A2-B2
  12. 2-Snap Wire on D2-D3
  13. 2-Snap Wire on F4-G4
  14. 2-Snap Wire on F8-G8
  15. 1-Snap Wire on G1
  16. 1-Snap Wire on A7

Third Layer

  1. 4-Snap Wire on G1-G4
  2. 2-Snap Wire on A7-A8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C9 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on F9 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on D9 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F9 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit shown and turn on the slide switch (S1). Turn on the remote control unit, extend the antenna, and use the levers try to drive the Rover around. The wiring has been changed so that the levers do not control the Snap Rover in the ways you’d expect, see how long it takes you to adjust.

Option A: Swap the connection points of the white and yellow jumper wires on the motor control module (U8).

Project 5: Two-Sound Rover

OBJECTIVE: To build a remote control vehicle with two sound levels.

Parts needed

First Layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C4-C6-F4-F6, with positive side of unit on C4 and C6
  2. (U8) Motor Control IC on C8-C10-F8-F10, with positive side of unit on C8 and C10
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  4. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  5. 6-Snap Wire on G5-G10
  6. 5-Snap Wire on B6-B10
  7. 3-Snap Wire on G2-E2
  8. 2-Snap Wire on C2-D2

Second Layer

  1. (R1) 100Ω Resistor C2-C4
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C6-C8
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D6-D8
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E6-E8
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on F6-F8
  6. (D4) White LED on D2-D4 with positive on D2
  7. (C4) 100µF Capacitor E2-E4 with positive on E4
  8. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor on F2-F4
  9. 3-Snap Wire on A5-C5
  10. 2-Snap Wire on A7-B7
  11. 2-Snap Wire on A8-B8
  12. 2-Snap Wire on B9-C9
  13. 2-Snap Wire on F5-G5
  14. 2-Snap Wire on F9-G9
  15. 1-Snap Wire on A2
  16. 1-Snap Wire on G2

Third Layer

  1. (W1) Horn on A2-C2 with positive on A2
  2. 4-Snap Wire on G2-G5

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on C10 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on E10 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on D10 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F10 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit shown and turn on the slide switch (S1). Turn on the remote control unit, extend the antenna, and use the levers try to drive the Rover around. Press the left or right buttons to activate the horn (W1); press both for a louder sound.

Project 6: Helpless Rover

OBJECTIVE: To look at the gears.

Parts needed

Parts are not attached to the grid for this project

  1. (S1) Slide Switch, S1 to right

Rover Rear NOTE: Rover must be upside down

  1. Jumper Wire (Gray) on top left of Rover to top middle of Rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Purple) on top middle of Rover to top right of Rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on lower middle of Rover to lower right of Rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Orange) on "OFF", left side of S1 switch, and lower left of Rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on "ON", right side of S1 switch, and lower middle of Rover

Flip the Rover body so it is upside down and connect the jumper wires to the body and slide switch (S1) as shown. Turn on the switch to watch the wheels and gears move.

Notice that the smaller gears are spinning much faster than the larger gears and wheels. The smallest gears (on the motor) are actually spinning 128 times faster than the wheels. See page 6 for more information about the gears.

Option A: Swap the connection points of the gray and orange jumper wires on the Rover rear. Now the wheels and gears spin in the opposite direction.

Project 7: Morse Code

OBJECTIVE: To learn about Morse code.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C7-C9-F7-F9, with positive side of unit on C7 and C9
  2. (S1) Slide Switch on G8-G10
  3. (C4) 100µF Capacitor E4-G4 with positive on E4
  4. 7-Snap Wire on A4-A10
  5. 3-Snap Wire on G5-E5
  6. 2-Snap Wire on C6-D6

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on A6-C6 with positive A6
  2. (W1) Horn on A7-C7 with positive A7
  3. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on E5-E7 with positive on E7
  4. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor on F5-F7
  5. 5-Snap Wire on A4-E4
  6. 3-Snap Wire on A8-C8
  7. 2-Snap Wire on D6-D7
  8. 2-Snap Wire on F8-G8
  9. 2-Snap Wire on G4-G5

Third Layer

  1. 4-Snap Wire on G5-G8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, connect the jumper wires, and turn on the slide switch (S1). Turn on the remote control unit and extend the antenna. Press the buttons on the remote control to generate long or short bursts of sound (from the W1 horn) or light (from the D4 LED).You can send secret messages to friends using Morse code, which uses a series of long and short bursts of sound or light to represent letters and numbers. A short burst is represented by a “•”, and a long burst by a “-”, as shown in this chart:

A• - M-- Y-•--
B- ••• N-• Z- -••
C- •- • O--- 1•- - - -
D-•• P•--• 2••- --
E• Q- -•- 3•••--
F••-• R•-• 4••••-
G--• S••• 5•••••
H•••• T- 6-••••
I•• U••- 7--•••
J•--- V•••- 8---••
K-•- W•-- 9-- --•
L•-•• X- ••- 0--- --

Morse code was developed in the 19th century to send information over long distances using telegraph wires and early radios. This equipment had only two states - on or off (that is, transmitting or not transmitting), and could not send the range of frequencies contained in human voices or music. The code sent letters as a sequence of short or long transmit bursts.

During World War II Navy ships sometimes communicated by flashing Morse Code messages between ships using searchlights (they did this because radio transmissions might reveal their presence or position to the enemy).

You can find more information about Morse code at websites such as http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morse_code. You can also find websites that will translate and play back Morse code messages, such as http://www.omnicron.com/~ford/java/NMorse.html.

Project 8: Generator

OBJECTIVE: To produce electricity by spinning the wheels.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. 4-Snap Wire on A3-D3
  2. 3-Snap Wire on A1-C1
  3. 2-Snap Wire on F1-G1
  4. 2-Snap Wire on G3-F3

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on C1-C3, with positive on C1
  2. (W1) Horn on B1-B3, with positive on B3
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on G1-G3
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on A1-A3
  5. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on F6-F9

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Green) on F3 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on B1 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Purple) on A1 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (White) on F1 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover

Flip the Rover body so it is upside down and connect the jumper wires to the body and circuit as shown. Turn off the slide switch (S1) for the time being.

Spin the right wheels with your hands. Depending on how fast you spin and in which direction, you may light the LEDs in the car body and the white LED (D4), or hear sound from the horn (W1).

Now turn on the slide switch (S1) and spin the right wheels again. The wheels now take more effort to spin, and cause the left wheels to also spin.

Spinning the right wheels makes all the inter-connected gears spin, and spins the shaft on the right motor. The spinning motor shaft creates electricity using magnetism (opposite to how electricity through the motor spins the shaft), which powers the LEDs and horn. With the switch on, the electricity created in the right motor also powers the left motor, which spins the left wheels. The wheels are harder to spin now because magnetic fields in both motors must be overcome. No batteries are used.

WARNING: Do not use excessive force to spin the wheels at abnormally high speeds. This may burn out the motors or LEDs.

Project 9: Slow Turn-Off

OBJECTIVE: To show how capacitors slow things down.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. Slide Switch on B8-B10
  2. 4-Snap Wire on F7-F10
  3. 3-Snap Wire on F5-D5
  4. 2-Snap Wire on B5-B6
  5. 2-Snap Wire on D8-D9

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on F5-F7 with positive on F5
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B6-B8
  3. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on B5-D5
  4. (C4) 100µF Capacitor F8-D8 with positive on D8
  5. (C4) 100µF Capacitor F9-D9 with positive on D9

Third Layer

  1. 3-Snap Wire on B8-D8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, place the base grid on the Rover body, and connect the jumper wires as shown. Turn the switch (S1) on and the LED is on. Turn the switch off, and the LED goes out slowly. Electricity stored in the 100µF capacitors (C4) keeps the LED on after the batteries have been disconnected.

If you remove one of the capacitors then the LED will turn off faster, because you aren’t storing as much electricity. If you remove both capacitors, the LED will turn off immediately when the switch is turned off.

Project 10: Series Capacitors

OBJECTIVE: To compare types of circuits.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. Slide Switch on B8-B10
  2. 4-Snap Wire on F7-F10
  3. 3-Snap Wire on F5-D5
  4. 2-Snap Wire on B5-B6
  5. 2-Snap Wire on D8-D9

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on F5-F7, with positive on F5
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B6-B8
  3. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on B5-D5
  4. (C4) 100µF Capacitor F8-D8 with positive on D8

Third Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor D8-B8 with positive on B8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

This is the same circuit as project 9, but with the capacitors connected differently. Build the circuit and connect the jumper wires as shown. Turn the switch on and off, and watch how quickly the LED turns off.The LED doesn’t stay on as long with this circuit than it did in project 9, because two capacitors connected in series store less electricity than just one. This may seem like a bad way to connect capacitors, but it allows them to be used with higher voltages.

Project 11: Sound and Light

OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit with sound and light.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. Slide Switch on B8-B10
  2. 6-Snap Wire on C3-C8
  3. 4-Snap Wire on E3-E6
  4. 3-Snap Wire on E8-G8
  5. 3-Snap Wire on E10-G10
  6. 1-Snap Wire on F6

Second Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C3-E3
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C4-E4
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C5-E5
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C6-E6
  5. (W1) Horn on E8-E10 with positive on E8
  6. (D4) White LED on F6-F8 with positive on F6
  7. (C4) 100µF Capacitor G8-G10 with positive on G8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on B8-C8
  9. 1-Snap Wire on F10

Third Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor F8-F10 with positive on F8
  2. 2-Snap Wire on E6-F6

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, place the base grid centered on the Rover body, and connect the jumper wires as shown. Turn on the switch (S1) and electricity flows from the batteries through the circuit. The horn (W1) converts electricity into sound and the LED (D4) converts electricity into light. The four 1KW resistors (R2) are connected in parallel, to act as a 250W resistance.

Project 12: Electricity Bank

OBJECTIVE: To show how capacitors store electrical charge.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor D6-F6 with positive on D6
  2. (C4) 100µF Capacitor D7-F7 with positive on D7
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D4-F4
  4. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on D9-F9
  5. 3-Snap Wire on B7-B9
  6. 2-Snap Wire on B4-B5
  7. 2-Snap Wire on B6-C6

Second Layer

  1. (W1) Horn on F7-F9 with positive on F7
  2. (D4) White LED on F4-F6 with positive on F4
  3. 3-Snap Wire on B4-D4
  4. 2-Snap Wire on C6-D6
  5. 1-Snap Wire on D7

Third Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on D6-D7
  2. 2-Snap Wire on F6-F7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on D9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on B6 and alternate between B5 and B7 to light LED or sound the horn

Build the circuit and connect the jumper wires, leaving one end of the green jumper off as shown. Touch the loose end of the green jumper to point A on the 3-snap wire for a moment. The horn (W1) makes noise while the 100µF capacitors (C4) fill up with electricity.

Now move the green jumper from point A to point B on the 2-snap wire. The LED (D4) lights for a few seconds using the electricity stored in the capacitors. Move the green jumper back to A to refill with electricity, and then to B several times.

Project 13: Slow R/C Flashlight

OBJECTIVE: To build a remote control light.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C8-C10-F8-F10, with positive side of unit on C8 and C10
  2. White LED on C1-C3 with positive on C1
  3. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C4-E4
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C6-E6
  6. 6-Snap Wire on A1-A6
  7. 4-Snap Wire on B6-B9
  8. 3-Snap Wire on G8-G10
  9. 2-Snap Wire on F6-G6

Second Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor A3-C3 with positive on A3
  2. (C4) 100µF Capacitor A4-C4 with positive on A4
  3. (C1) 0.02µF Capacitor F6-F8
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on A1-C1
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C6-C8
  6. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on E4-E6
  7. 3-Snap Wire on G6-G8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on A6-B6
  9. 2-Snap Wire on A8-B8
  10. 2-Snap Wire on B9-C9
  11. 2-Snap Wire on F9-G9

Third Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on C3-C4

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit shown and turn on the slide switch (S1). Turn on the remote control unit, and press the left button. The LED (D4) turns on and off slowly

Project 14: Capacitor Battery

OBJECTIVE: To show how capacitors store electrical charge.

Parts Needed

First Layer
  1. (W1) Horn on C6-C8 with positive on C6
  2. (D4) White LED on G6-G8 with positive on G6
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E6-E8
  4. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on A6-A8

Second Layer

  1. 3-Snap Wire on A6-C6
  2. 3-Snap Wire on E6-G6
  3. (C4) 100µF Capacitor on C10-E10 with positive on C10

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on C10 of the 100µF Capacitor and top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on E10 of the 100µF Capacitor and bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit shown but leave the 100µF capacitor (C4) unconnected. The orange and gray jumper wires are placed on the base grid at points C10 and E10.

Touch the capacitor across the jumper wires at points C10-E10 to fill it with electricity. Now place it across points A8-C8 to make noise, or across points E8-G8 to flash a light. Move the capacitor back to C10-E10 to refill it, then to A8-C8 or E8-G8 again.

The 100µF capacitor acts like a battery. It can store electricity for a while, then release it when you need it. But a capacitor is a very weak battery, and can only make noise or light for a few seconds.

Project 15: When More Are Less

OBJECTIVE: To compare types of circuits.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C7-E7
  2. 6-Snap Wire on B4-B9
  3. 5-Snap Wire on F3-F7
  4. 3-Snap Wire on D3-D5
  5. 2-Snap Wire on E9-F9

Second Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D3-F3
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D4-F4
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D5-F5
  4. (D4) White LED on F7-F9 with positive on F7
  5. 2-Snap Wire on B7-C7
  6. 1-Snap Wire on B4
  7. 1-Snap Wire on E7

Third Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on B4-D4
  2. 2-Snap Wire on E7-F7 Rover Rear:

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on E9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit and connect the jumper wires as shown. The LED (D4) will be on but the resistor is limiting the electricity through it.

Turn on the switch (S1) to place three other resistors in parallel with the first one. This increases the flow of electricity to the LED, and makes it brighter. Placing other resistors in parallel reduces the total resistance (to 250W here), so more are less.

Project 16: When More Are More

OBJECTIVE: To compare types of circuits.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on C7-E7
  2. (D4) White LED on F7-F9 with positive on F7
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B4-B6
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B7-B9
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C4-E4
  6. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on F4-F6

Second Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on E4-F4
  2. 2-Snap Wire on B4-C4
  3. 2-Snap Wire on B7-C7
  4. 2-Snap Wire on E7-F7
  5. 1-Snap Wire on B6
  6. 1-Snap Wire on F6

Third Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on B6-B7
  2. 2-Snap Wire on F6-F7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit and connect the jumper wires as shown. The LED (D4) will be on but the four resistors are limiting the electricity through it.

Turn on the switch (S1) to bypass three resistors that are in series with the first one. This increases the flow of electricity to the LED, and makes it brighter. Placing other resistors in series increases the total resistance, so more are more.

Project 17: Pencil Buzz

OBJECTIVE: To create a missing component with pencil and paper.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. Motor Control IC on C4-C6-F4-F6, with positive side of unit on C4 and C6
  2. Slide Switch on A8-A10
  3. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  4. 6-Snap Wire on G1-G6
  5. 4-Snap Wire on G7-G10
  6. 3-Snap Wire on C1-E1
  7. 2-Snap Wire on C8-D8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on D2-E2

Second Layer

  1. (W1) Horn on C6-C8 with positive on C6
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on A1-C1
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E1-G1
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D2-D4
  5. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on D6-D8
  6. 3-Snap Wire on A5-C5
  7. 2-Snap Wire on A7-A8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on F5-G5
  9. 2-Snap Wire on G6-G7
  10. Jumper Wire (Purple) on E2 and on Jumper Wire (White)
  11. Jumper Wire (White) on Jumper Wire (Purple)

Third Layer

  1. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on C1, snap another wire on the loose end of C1 wire and leave it loose to press on pencil covered paper
  2. Jumper Wire (Purple) on E2, snap another wire on the loose end of E2 wire and leave it loose to press on pencil covered paper

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit as instructed and connect the jumper wires to it, but leave the loose ends of the two-segment jumpers unconnected for now. There is one more part you need and you are going to create it. Take a pencil (No. 2 lead is best but other types will also work). SHARPEN IT, and fill a large section on the small piece of paper. You will get better results if you place a hard, flat surface directly beneath this piece of paper while you are drawing. Press hard (but don’t rip the paper), and fill in the shape several times to be sure you have a thick, even layer of pencil lead.

Turn on the switch and take the loose ends of the jumpers, press them on the heavy pencil coating and move them around the paper. If you don’t hear any sound then add another layer of pencil lead, or put a drop of water on the jumper ends to get better contact. You can draw different shapes if you like.

Option A: Replace the horn (W1) with the LED (D4, “+” side on the left), to shine a light instead of making noise.

Option B: Instead of using a pencil drawing, touch the metal ends of the jumper wires with your fingers to see how your body can conduct electricity!

Project 18: Stay-on Pencil Light

OBJECTIVE: To create a missing component with pencil and paper.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. Motor Control IC on C4-C6-F4-F6, with positive side of unit on C4 and C6
  2. Slide Switch on A8-A10
  3. 7-Snap Wire on A1-A7
  4. 6-Snap Wire on G1-G6
  5. 4-Snap Wire on G7-G10
  6. 3-Snap Wire on C1-E1
  7. 2-Snap Wire on C8-D8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on D2-E2

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on C6-C8 with positive on C6
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on A1-C1
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E1-G1
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D2-D4
  5. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on D6-D8
  6. 3-Snap Wire on A5-C5
  7. 2-Snap Wire on A7-A8
  8. 2-Snap Wire on F5-G5
  9. 2-Snap Wire on G6-G7
  10. (C4) 100µF Capacitor E2-G2 with positive on E2

Third Layer

  1. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on C1, snap another jumper wire to unattached end, leave loose to press on pencil covered paper
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on D2, snap another jumper wire to unattached end, leave loose to press on pencil covered paper

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

This is the same circuit as project 17, but it stays on if you turn it off. Build the circuit at left and connect the jumper wires to it, but leave the loose ends of the two-segment jumpers unconnected for now. There is one more part you need and you are going to create it. Take a pencil (No. 2 lead is best but other types will also work). SHARPEN IT, and fill in your small piece of paper. You will get better results if you place a hard, flat surface directly beneath this paper while you are drawing on the paper with the #2 pencil. Press hard (but don’t rip the paper), and fill in the shape several times to be sure you have a thick, even layer of pencil lead.

Turn on the switch and take the loose ends of the jumpers, press them to the shape and move them around over the pencil covered piece of paper. It will take a few seconds for the LED (D4) to turn on, but then it will stay on for a long time after you remove the jumper wires from the paper. If the light never comes on then add another layer of pencil lead, or put a drop of water on the jumper ends to get better contact.

Option A: Replace the LED (D4) with the horn (W1, “+” side on the left), to make noise instead of shining a light!

Option B: Instead of using a paper covered with pencil lead, place the loose ends of the jumper wires into a cup of water to make a water alarm!

Project 19: Water Detector

OBJECTIVE: To show how water conducts electricity.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on D5-F5 with positive on D5
  2. (S1) Slide Switch on D7-D9
  3. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on F7-F9

Second Layer

  1. 3-Snap Wire on D5-D7
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on F7, snap another jumper wire on the unattached end, the unconnected end of the two-segment wire to be placed in cup of water
  3. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F5 snap another jumper wire on the unattached end, the unconnected end of the two-segment wire to be placed in cup of water

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on D9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit at left and connect the jumper wires to it, but leave the loose ends of the two-segment jumpers lying on the table initially. Turn on the slide switch (S1) - the LED (D4) will be dark because the air separating the jumpers has very high resistance. Touch the loose jumper ends to each other and the LED will be bright, because with a direct connection there is no resistance separating the jumpers.

Now take the loose ends of the green and yellow jumpers and place them in a cup of water, without letting them touch each other. The LED should be lit, indicating you have detected water!

For this experiment, your LED brightness may vary depending upon your local water supply. Pure water (like distilled water) has very high resistance, but drinking water has impurities mixed in that increase electrical conduction.

Project 20: Salt Water Detector

OBJECTIVE: To show how adding salt to water changes water’s electrical characteristics.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on B7-B9
  2. (D4) White LED on F7-F9 with positive on F7
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D7-D9
  4. 5-Snap Wire on B5-F5
  5. 1-Snap Wire on C7

Second Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B5-B7
  2. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C5-C7
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D5-D7
  4. Jumper Wire (White) on F7, snap another jumper on the unattached end to submerge in cup of salt water
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on F5, snap another jumper on the unattached end to submerge in cup of salt water
  6. 3-Snap Wire on D9-F9

Third Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on B7-C7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on B9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on D9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit at left and connect the jumper wires to it, but place the loose ends of the two-segment jumpers in a cup of water as in the preceding project. Turn on the slide switch (S1), the LED (D4) should be dimly lit. Slowly add salt to the water and see how the LED brightness changes, mix it a little so it dissolves. It will become very bright as you add more salt. You can use this bright LED condition as a saltwater detector! You can then reduce the LED brightness by adding more water to dilute the salt.

Take another cup of water and try adding other household substances like sugar to see if they increase the LED brightness as the salt did.

Project 21: One-Way Light

OBJECTIVE: To show how an LED works.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on C8-C10
  2. (D4) White LED on C7-E7 with positive on C7
  3. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on E8-E10

Second Layer

  1. 2-Snap Wire on E7-E8
  2. 2-Snap Wire on C7-C8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on C9 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on E9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, place the base grid centered on the Rover body, and connect the jumper wires as shown. When you close the slide switch (S1), electricity flows from the batteries through the switch (S1), the LED (D4), the resistor (R1), and back to the battery.

The switch controls the electricity and the LED (light emitting diode) converts electricity into light. The resistor limits how much electricity can flow - without it the batteries would overload the LED and damage it! LEDs are used in all types of electronic equipment to indicate conditions and pass information to the user of that equipment.

Reverse the position of the LED (so that the “+” side is next to the resistor). Turn on the switch - nothing happens. LEDs only allow electricity to flow in one direction, so the circuit doesn’t work if the LED is backwards.

Project 22: Conduction Detector

OBJECTIVE: To make a circuit that detects the conduction of electricity in different materials.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. 3-Snap Wire on C8-C10
  2. 3-Snap Wire on E8-E10
  3. 2-Snap Wire on C5-C6
  4. 2-Snap Wire on E5-E6

Second Layer

  1. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on C5-E5
  2. (D4) White LED pn E6-E8 with positive on E6
  3. Wrap Paper Clip around pegs C6-C8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on C10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on E10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit, place the base grid centered on the Rover body, and connect the jumper wires as shown. To complete the circuit, place a paperclip across the snaps as shown in the picture. If the paperclip is made of metal, the LED (D4) will be bright.

Try placing other materials (such as plastic or wood) across the snaps instead of the paperclip. If the material has low resistance, the LED will light. This circuit can be used to detect which materials conduct electricity.

Project 23: Make Your Own Battery

OBJECTIVE: To show how capacitors can store electricity.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B6-B8
  2. 4-Snap Wire on F7-F10
  3. 3-Snap Wire on B5-D5
  4. 3-Snap Wire on D8-D10
  5. 2-Snap Wire on D7-E7

Second Layer

  1. (C4) 100µF Capacitor D8-F8 with positive on D8
  2. (C4) 100µF Capacitor D9-F9 with positive on D9
  3. (D4) White LED on D5-D7 with positive on D5
  4. 2-Snap Wire on B5-B6
  5. 2-Snap Wire on E7-F7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on D10, to be alternately snapped on the top right of the rear of the rover, or B8 on the (R2) 1KΩ Resistor resistor on the grid
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F10 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit and place the base grid centered on the Rover body. Connect the jumper wires, leaving one end of the orange jumper off as shown. Touch the loose end of the orange jumper to point A on the Rover rear for a moment. This fills up the 100µF capacitors (C4) with electricity.

Now move the orange jumper from point A to point B on the 1KW resistor (R2). The LED (D4) lights for a few seconds using the electricity stored in the capacitors. Move the orange jumper back to A to refill with electricity, and then to B several times.

Notice that a capacitor is not very efficient at storing electricity - compare how long the 100µFs kept the LED lit for with how your batteries run all of your projects! That is because capacitors store electrical energy while a battery stores chemical energy.

Project 24: Backup Warning

OBJECTIVE: To make a warning when the Rover wheel go backwards.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. R/C Receiver IC on B2-B4-E2-E4, with positive side of unit on B2 and B4
  2. Motor Control IC on B6-B8-E6-E8, with positive side of unit on B6 and B8
  3. 7-Snap Wire on F3-F9
  4. 6-Snap Wire on A3-A8
  5. 2-Snap Wire on B10-C10
  6. 2-Snap Wire on D10-E10
  7. 1-Snap Wire on A10

Second Layer

  1. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  2. White LED on B8-B10 with positive on B8
  3. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on B4-B6
  4. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on C4-C6
  5. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on D4-D6
  6. (R2) 1KΩ Resistor on E4-E6
  7. (R1) 100Ω Resistor on C8-C10
  8. (W1) Horn on E8-E10 with positive on E8
  9. 3-Snap Wire on D8-D10
  10. 2-Snap Wire on A3-B3
  11. 2-Snap Wire on A7-B7
  12. 2-Snap Wire on E3-F3
  13. 2-Snap Wire on E7-F7

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover
  2. Jumper Wire (White) on B8 and in the top middle of the rear of the rover
  3. Jumper Wire (Green) on D10 and in the top left of the rear of the rover
  4. Jumper Wire (Yellow) on C8 and in the bottom middle of the rear of the rover
  5. Jumper Wire (Purple) on E8 and in the bottom left of the rear of the rover
  6. Jumper Wire (Gray) on F9 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Use the remote control levers to drive Rover around. Whenever the right wheels back up an alarm will sound, whenever the left wheels back up a light will shine.

Project 25: RX1 Test

OBJECTIVE: To test the functions of the RX1 module.

Parts Needed

First Layer

  1. (RX1) R/C Receiver IC on C4-C6-F4-F6, with positive side of unit on C4 and C6
  2. (S1) Slide Switch on A8-A10
  3. 6-Snap Wire on B8-G8
  4. 5-Snap Wire on A3-A7
  5. 4-Snap Wire on A2-D2
  6. 3-Snap Wire on G5-G7

Second Layer

  1. (D4) White LED on C2-C4 with positive on C2
  2. 3-Snap Wire on A5-C5
  3. 2-Snap Wire on A2-A3
  4. 2-Snap Wire on A7-A8
  5. 2-Snap Wire on F5-G5
  6. 2-Snap Wire on G7-G8

Rover Rear

  1. Jumper Wire (Orange) on A10 and in the top right of the rear of the rover or on B8
  2. Jumper Wire (Gray) on G8 and in the bottom right of the rear of the rover

Build the circuit as shown. Be sure you have the A-B-C switches on the remote control and R/C receiver (RX1) set to the same channel, have turned on the remote control, and are not being interfered with by other remote control transmitters. Turn on the slide switch (S1), then press the left button on the remote control to turn on the LED (D4). After project is built as per instructions, lift the LED, and place it on each set of coordintates below, pressing the buttons on the controller that correspond with each set of grid coordinates listed below:

B. Shift the LED to be across points D2 & D4, positive on D2; now the right R/C button should turn on the LED.

C. Shift the LED to be across points C6 & C8, positive on C6; now pushing the left R/C lever forward should turn on the LED.

D. Shift the LED to be across points D6 & D8, positive on D6; now pushing the left R/C lever backward should turn on the LED.

E. Shift the LED to be across points E6 & E8, positive on E6; now pushing the right R/C lever forward should turn on the LED.

F. Shift the LED to be across points F6 & F8, positive on F6; now pushing the right R/C lever backward should turn on the LED.

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