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INTRODUCTION

Long Cane Techniques

Introduction

This review guide is a supplement to the Step-By-Step series on orientation & mobility. Designed for use by students who are preparing to become O&M specialists, this review guide provides a quick, sequential, and pictorial review of the mobility skills taught in the module, Long Cane Techniques. Whether used to prepare for a test, or to provide a quick refresher when preparing to teach a new or forgotten skill, it is hoped that this review guide will be of value to the user.

This review guide is provided in a durable, hard-copy format to enable individuals to use it out on the street or when working with students. This guide is also provided in electronic format. For more detailed information about the mobility skills, please see the Step-By-Step Study Guide or the Step-By-Step videos on flash drive.

DETECTION

Diagonal

Standard

The traveler holds her cane hand in line with her shoulder and 6-8 inches in front of her near hip.

She holds the cane with the handshake grasp with the back of the hand facing upward.

She lowers her grasp on the grip; the top of the grip extends 1-2 inches beyond her shoulder.

The traveler holds the cane diagonally across her body; the tip and grip each extend 1-2 inches outside of the body width.

The cane tip touches the ground.

Alternatively, the cane tip is held 1-4 inches above the ground.

Turning

Upon reaching the opening, the traveler pauses and pulls the cane tip back to her feet.

When it is clear, the traveler turns and resumes travel.

Touch

Standard

Trunk Position

The traveler’s shoulders, trunk and feet face forward.

Arm and Hand Position

Grasping the cane at the top end of the grip, the traveler holds his index finger flat against the side of the grip.

The traveler wraps his remaining fingers around the grip, with his thumb either resting against his middle finger or resting on top of the grip, and pointing down the shaft.

The traveler holds his upper arm resting against the side of his body.

His cane hand is at midline, 6-8 inches in front of his body and at about waist height.

Wrist Motion

The traveler bends his wrist left and right. He holds his forearm still and does not allow it to rotate.

Foot-Cane Coordination

The traveler touches the cane tip to the ground at the end of each arc as his opposite heel touches down. This is referred to as being "in step."

Arc Width

The traveler touches the cane tip to the ground 1-2 inches beyond his body width on each side.

Arc Height

The traveler lets the cane tip rise no more than 1-2 inches above the ground in the middle of the arc.

Constant Contact

The traveler performs the TOUCH technique, with the cane tip contacting the walking surface at all times.

Turning

Upon reaching the opening or intersecting pathway, the traveler pauses and pulls the cane tip back to his feet.

When clear, the traveler turns…


and then resumes travel.

Correcting Foot-Cane Coordination: Extra Arc

The traveler pauses or slows his pace slightly,


sweeps the cane in an extra arc,


and then takes his next step.

Correcting Foot-Cane Coordination: Tapping Twice on the Same Side

The traveler taps the cane on the same side for two consecutive steps,


then resumes the TOUCH technique.

Touch and Slide

Standard

The traveler performs the TOUCH technique but lets the cane tip remain in contact with the walking surface and slide slightly forward at the end of each arc.

Shortened Cane

Touch

Holding the cane below the grip, the traveler performs the TOUCH technique.

Diagonal

Holding the cane below the grip, the traveler performs the DIAGONAL technique.

SHORELINING

Diagonal Trailing

Standard

The traveler performs the DIAGONAL technique with the cane tip either touching in the junction of the vertical surface and the floor, or touching the surface 1-2 inches above the floor.

She holds the cane in the hand opposite the vertical surface being followed.

Crossing an Opening

Upon reaching the opening, the traveler anchors the cane at the near edge, walks up to it and pauses.

When it is clear, the traveler crosses using the DIAGONAL technique.

Turning

Upon reaching the opening, the traveler anchors her cane, walks up to the edge, and pauses.

When it is clear, the traveler maintains her cane tip anchored against the edge and turns the corner.

Touch and Drag

Standard

Walking next to the shoreline, the traveler performs the TOUCH technique with the following modifications:

- He uses a standard arc when moving the cane from the shoreline to the opposite side.

- He drags the cane tip along the ground on the return arc toward the shoreline.

Touch Trailing

Along a Vertical Surface

The traveler performs the TOUCH technique, allowing the cane tip to contact the vertical surface 1-2 inches above the ground.

Crossing an Opening

When the traveler’s cane tip contacts an opening, she anchors the cane at the edge of the opening and walks up to her cane.

When it is clear, the traveler crosses the opening using the TOUCH technique.

Turning

Upon reaching the opening, the traveler anchors the cane and walks up to it.

When clear, the traveler turns and resumes travel.

Locating a Narrow Opening or Objective

The traveler performs the TOUCH TRAILING technique in conjunction with the SHORTENED CANE technique.

Locating an Objective Above Ground Level

The traveler performs the TOUCH TRAILING technique, allowing the cane tip to contact the vertical surface 6-12 inches above the ground.

Along a Horizontal Surface

The traveler uses the TOUCH technique, widening her arc on the shoreline side and touching the cane tip down 1-2 inches beyond the edge of the shoreline.

Three-Point

Standard

Walking next to and below the shoreline, the traveler performs the TOUCH technique but touches the cane tip to the ground at three points per cycle:

1. On the side away from the shoreline


2. On side of the shoreline


3. Above the shoreline

NEGOTIATING DOORS & STAIRS

Doors With a Cane

Standard Doors

Upon contacting the door, the traveler uses the CONTACTING & EXPLORING OBJECTS technique to walk up to an extended arm distance from the door.

The traveler positions the cane vertically with the shaft flat against the door and the tip raised 1 inch off of the ground. The traveler locates the door handle by sliding the cane shaft to one side and then, if necessary, to the other side.


- Placing slight pressure on the cane when first placing it against the door may help the traveler to distinguish between a push door and a pull door.

The traveler reaches for the door handle or door push bar and then opens the door.

- If he wishes, the traveler can anchor his cane shaft against the door handle.


- He then transfers the cane, if necessary, to the hand nearest the latch side and slides his free hand down the cane shaft to locate the door handle.

The traveler walks through the doorway. The traveler "clears" with his cane on the other side of the threshold before walking through the doorway.

- For manually closing doors, the traveler will pull or push the door closed behind him.

- For self-closing doors, the traveler simply lets the door swing closed.

Automatic Doors

The traveler stops walking when he either steps on the mat or hears the automatic door start to open.

After the door has opened fully the traveler walks forward.

Stairs With a Cane

Ascending Stairs

Upon contacting the riser of the first step, the traveler anchors her cane against the riser and then walks up to the first step.

The traveler verifies that she is aligned perpendicularly to the stairs.

If the traveler is unfamiliar with the stairs, she can also use her cane to determine the

- height of the stairs, and

- depth of the stairs.

The traveler positions the cane tip 1-2 inches below the nosing of the second or third step and holds the cane either vertically or semi-vertically.

The traveler allows the cane tip to contact each riser lightly as she climbs the stairs.

At the landing, the traveler clears with the cane as she climbs the final one to two steps.

Descending Stairs

The traveler locates the edge of the first step with her cane tip.

She anchors the cane against the nosing of the top step and then walks up to her cane.

The traveler uses her cane to verify that she is aligned perpendicularly to the stairs.

If the traveler is unfamiliar with the stairs, she can also use her cane to determine the

- height of the stairs, and

- depth of the stairs.

Holding the cane in the DIAGONAL position, the traveler walks down the stairs.

At the landing, the traveler clears with the cane as she walks down the final one to two steps.

Locating the Handrail

After walking up to the first step, the traveler reaches her hand forward and to the side in order to locate the handrail.


- If she fails to locate the handrail, the traveler follows the first step to the side of the stairway using the THREE-POINT technique (for ascending stairs) or the TOUCH & DRAG technique (for descending stairs).

Turning to face the stairs, the traveler then reaches her hand forward and to the side to locate the handrail.

NEGOTIATING OBSTACLES & REORIENTATION

Sidewalk Recovery

Standard

The traveler stops walking when she feels her cane tip contact a shoreline in front of her.

The traveler squares-off, facing the shoreline.

The traveler sweeps her cane to each side to locate the original sidewalk.

If the sidewalk is not found

The traveler trails the shoreline toward the parallel street using the TOUCH & DRAG or TOUCH TRAILING technique to locate the sidewalk.

If the traveler contacts the street before locating the sidewalk

She reverses her direction to travel away from the parallel street and uses the TOUCH & DRAG or TOUCH TRAILING technique to locate the sidewalk.

Locating an Intersecting Sidewalk: Following the Parkway

Upon reaching the corner, the traveler turns away from the parallel street.

If she locates the sidewalk, the traveler resumes travel in her desired direction.

If she locates a parkway, the traveler uses the TOUCH & DRAG or TOUCH TRAILING technique to follow the parkway until she locates the intersecting sidewalk.

The traveler clears and resumes travel in her desired direction.

Locating an Intersecting Sidewalk: 180-Degree Turn

Upon reaching the corner, the traveler turns around, placing the perpendicular street at her back.

The traveler takes two to three steps, then turns in her desired direction.

The traveler clears to locate the intersecting sidewalk and then resumes travel in her desired direction.

Regaining Line of Travel

When the traveler contacts the shoreline on the side of the path, she turns her trunk in the desired direction of travel and continues walking.

Obstacles in the Travel Path

Standard

Upon contacting an object, the traveler anchors her cane and walks up to it.

The traveler "clears" with her cane on each side of the object to locate the continuation of the travel path.

If the traveler does not locate the path, she turns toward the parallel street and trails to the end of the object.

The traveler either

- projects a straight line of travel in her original direction, or

- trails around the object, then turns and resumes her original line of travel.

Vehicles in the Travel Path

Standard

Upon contacting a vehicle, the traveler stops at a distance of about one step from the vehicle.

Using the TOUCH TRAILING and OBSTACLES IN THE TRAVEL PATH techniques, the traveler trails around the vehicle to its opposite side.

If the vehicle partially blocks the sidewalk

The traveler trails to the end of the vehicle, then projects and follows a straight line of travel forward.

If the vehicle completely blocks the sidewalk

The traveler trails around the end of the vehicle to a point that is opposite where she initially contacted the vehicle. She then projects and follows a straight line of travel forward.

- The traveler uses the UPPER HAND & FOREARM (Modified) technique when trailing around a van or truck.

1839 Frankfort Avenue P.O. Box 6085  Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085  Phone: 502-895-2405  Toll Free: 800-223-1839  Fax: 502-899-2274  Email: info@aph.org  Website: www.aph.org

Step-By-Step  Review Guide  Long Cane Techniques  Catalog Number  8-75980-00

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