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INTRODUCTION

Non-Cane Techniques

Introduction

This review guide is a supplement to the Step-By-Step series on orientation & mobility. Designed for use both by students who are preparing to become O&M specialists and by other vision professionals alike, this review guide provides the user with a quick, sequential, and pictorial review of the mobility skills taught in the module, Non-Cane Techniques. Whether used to prepare for a test, or to provide a quick refresher when preparing to teach a new or forgotten skill, it is hoped that this review guide will be of value to the user.

This review guide is provided in a durable, hard-copy format to enable individuals to use it out on the street or when working with students. This guide is also provided in electronic format. For more detailed information about the mobility skills, please see the Step-By-Step Study Guide or the Step-By-Step videos on flash drive.

SELF-PROTECTIVE

Lower Hand and Forearm

Standard

As she walks, the traveler positions her body as follows:

Front View

Front View

Side View

Side View

Trunk
Straight forward

Elbow
Straight

Hand and Wrist
At midline, 6-8 inches in front of her body; the wrist is bent slightly downward and her palm faces her body; the fingers point downward and are held relaxed and close together.


Upper Hand and Forearm

Standard

As she walks, the traveler positions her body as follows:

Front View

Front View

Side View

Side View

Rear View

Rear View

Trunk 
Straight forward 

Upper arm 
Parallel to the floor at shoulder height 

Elbow 
Bent to 120 degrees 

Forearm 
Across her body with her fingers reaching 1 inch beyond her shoulder 

Wrist 
Straight 

Hand 
Her palm faces forward and her fingers are together and cupped slightly. 

When following a wall, the traveler performs this technique with her arm that is farthest from the wall.

Modified

As she walks, the traveler positions her body as follows:

Front View

Front View

Side View

Side View

Trunk 
Straight forward 

Elbow 
Slightly ahead of her body 

Wrist 
Straight 

Hand 
One foot in front of her face; palm faces forward; fingers point upward and are held relaxed and close together. 

DIRECTIONAL

Trailing

With All Four Fingers

The traveler walks 4-6 inches from the vertical surface. As he walks, the traveler contacts the surface lightly with the backs of all four of his fingers.

With Ring Finger and Little Finger

The traveler walks 4-6 inches from the vertical surface. As he walks, the traveler contacts the surface lightly with the backs of his ring finger and little finger.

With the Side of the Hand

The traveler walks 4-6 inches from the vertical surface. As he walks, the traveler contacts the surface lightly with the side of his hand.

With the Fingernails

The traveler walks 4-6 inches from the vertical surface. As he walks, the traveler contacts the surface lightly with the back of his fingernails.

Direction Taking (Tactile)

Perpendicular Alignment

The traveler stands with her back to a flat surface that runs perpendicular to her desired line of travel.

The traveler projects a straight line of travel and walks forward.

Parallel Alignment

The traveler stands about 4-6 inches from a flat surface that runs parallel to her desired line of travel.

The traveler slides her arm forward along the surface to verify her alignment.

The traveler projects a straight line of travel and walks forward.

Traversing Open Spaces

Upper Hand and Forearm

The traveler pauses upon locating the opening.

When it is clear, the traveler assumes the UPPER HAND & FOREARM position with his other arm.

He crosses the opening and locates the wall on the opposite side.

Extended Arm

The traveler pauses at the opening.

When it is clear, the traveler assumes the TRAILING position.

The traveler crosses the opening and locates the wall on the opposite side.

Rotating Trunk

The traveler pauses upon locating the opening.

When it is clear, the traveler assumes the UPPER HAND & FOREARM position.

The traveler rotates his trunk toward the opening.

The traveler crosses the opening and locates the wall on the opposite side.

Squaring Off

The traveler pauses upon locating the opening.

When it is clear, the traveler turns the corner and takes one step. He then places his back against the wall.

When it is clear, the traveler projects a straight line of travel forward and walks across the opening to the opposite side using the UPPER HAND & FOREARM technique.


Upon contacting the wall on the other side, the traveler turns and trails the wall to the corner. When it is clear, he turns the corner and resumes travel.

Passing Crowded Doorways

The traveler pauses upon encountering a crowded doorway.

When it is clear, the traveler assumes the UPPER HAND & FOREARM position with the arm that is opposite the wall.

He moves in a semi-circle across the estimated width of the doorway,


and locates the wall on the opposite side.

1839 Frankfort Avenue P.O. Box 6085 
Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 
Phone: 502-895-2405 
Toll Free: 800-223-1839 
Fax: 502-899-2274 
Email: info@aph.org 
Website: www.aph.org

Step-By-Step 
Review Guide 
Non-Cane Techniques
 
Catalog Number 
8-75980-00

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