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INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview

Step-By-Step: An Interactive Guide to Mobility Techniques is an interactive instructional program that combines full motion video, photographs, and text demonstrating mobility techniques used in travel by people who are blind or visually impaired. The Step-By-Step series is designed primarily for college and university students who are learning to be orientation & mobility specialists. Selected modules, however, will be of interest to teachers of the visually impaired, rehabilitation teachers, professionals serving people with visual impairments, and others who simply wish to know more about independent travel techniques used by people who are blind. Some users such as college and university pre-service students in orientation and mobility may wish to learn about all of the techniques used by travelers who are blind. Those who are rehabilitation teachers and teachers of the visually impaired may only wish to learn how to teach specific groups of skills (e.g., human guide and/or non-cane skills) to learners who are blind. Other people, such as those who work, live, or recreate with people who are blind may wish to learn human guide skills, not for the purpose of teaching these skills, but rather to become more effective guides themselves.

In this guide, users will see video demonstrations of mobility techniques performed correctly. In addition, when applicable, they will see alternative methods (e.g., for use in varying environments) as well as related skills. Users will also have the opportunity to see video demonstrations of errors commonly made by blind travelers and/or human guides when they are first learning mobility techniques. The purpose of these latter demonstrations is to help the user learn to recognize common errors as well as how to correct them. The program is described in more detail in section 1.3, "More about Step-By-Step."

Step-By-Step is divided into seven content modules, each covering mobility techniques that are related to a specific method of travel (e.g., with a human guide or with a long cane), or to specific environments (e.g., street crossings, using public transportation). The seven modules are described in the following list:

1.2 History of the Development Effort

The development of Step-By-Step was partially funded by the Center for the Enhancement of Teaching at San Francisco State University. This effort was based on a previous project funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (Grant # H029K10114) that developed an interactive guide to mobility techniques designed to play on laserdisc. Soon after the laserdisc version was completed, requests came from universities and other interested groups across the United States for a version that would play on a flash drive. Hence, the development of Step-By-Step: An Interactive Guide to Mobility Techniques.

The development of this interactive mobility guide began as a single-university effort to address the needs of its students for a visual tool that they could use outside of class time to learn, review, and practice the mobility techniques that they were learning to teach. The focus was on learning the elements necessary for the successful performance of each technique, visually identifying common performance errors made by travelers who have visual impairments, and then learning how to correct those errors in order to enable a person to travel more efficiently and effectively and to avoid potential injury.

The effort, however, soon grew to be something much larger. A prototype was originally field-tested by students and faculty in orientation & mobility at three universities: the University of Texas at Austin, Western Michigan University, and San Francisco State University. Feedback from students and faculty revealed multiple effective uses for such a database and interactive learning tool. However, feedback also highlighted significant differences among the universities in how students were taught to perform mobility skills. Surprised by this finding and inspired to develop a tool that would have national relevance, orientation and mobility faculty at San Francisco State University held an O&M symposium in February 1993. University faculty in O&M shared methods of performing mobility techniques taught at their respective universities and colleges. In this symposium, participants demonstrated their individual methods for performing each technique and, as a nationally representative group, came to a general consensus on acceptable standard and alternate methods for performing techniques. Although the techniques (often including a variety of sub-skills within each) that are presented in Step-By-Step do not represent all possible variations, they do represent those that were generally endorsed by this nationally representative group.

1.3 More About Step-By-Step

Step-By-Step is divided into seven content modules, each including three to 12 mobility techniques; each technique may include from one to eight skills. Each module includes the following sections:

Name and purpose of the technique: A concise purpose statement gives the rationale for, and primary use of, each technique.

A list of skills within the technique (all of the following are provided for each skill):

Purpose - A concise purpose statement gives the rationale for, and primary use of, each skill.

Methods - This section provides a basic step by step description of how each skill is performed, along with a video demonstration. Each skill has a name that describes one of its most salient features. In addition, alternate and related skills are provided. Alternate skills are those that can be used in specific environmental situations or that may be available to the traveler as a matter of personal choice. Related skills refer to those that may or may not be used in conjunction with other method(s) to negotiate special environmental circumstances or situations (e.g., turning a corner when using the Diagonal technique). For the purposes of presentation in this guide, it is assumed that unless otherwise stated, the traveler has no functional travel vision and has no other impairments or disabilities. This means that the traveler might be totally blind, or that the traveler's visual impairment might require him or her to use non-visual techniques for traveling (e.g., after dark if night vision is limited, or when traveling with a severely limited peripheral field).

Each skill can be viewed either one step at a time or as a continuous movie clip. In addition, a text description of each step accompanies each clip. Some techniques (e.g., Human Guide, Touch Technique, Approach & Alignment, Timing, and Executing Crossings) have a number of important, yet sometimes complicated components. When this is the case, the elements of the skill are described in terms of components rather than steps. In order to successfully complete the challenges, the user must view all of the components before proceeding further.

When helpful, skills are seen from a number of different angles. This is done when specific elements of the skill are best viewed and assessed from different points of view. The performance of many of the skills shown on the video may seem rather stiff or mechanical; this performance style is actually used intentionally because it is the best way to show the skill's steps or elements most distinctly. In real life, travelers develop their own (and smoother) styles. Depending on their skill level, environmental awareness, and the environment itself, some travelers even develop some functional variations from the textbook performance. In a few of the videos, the advanced traveler portrayed has taken effective but safe shortcuts (combined or skipped steps). As an extra challenge, see how many you can find. Remember, what is most important in a real teaching situation is that the traveler be consistently safe and effective when traveling in that environment or situation.

Note: Some techniques and skills incorporate methods for properly storing the long cane when it is not in use. Although proper cane placement is demonstrated in the program, it is recommended that the user read Appendix B: Cane Placement (see Introduction and Appendices module) for a fuller understanding of proper cane placement techniques before completing the following skills: Seating, Automobile Travel, City Bus Travel, and Subway Travel.

Challenges - Errors commonly made by people who are learning travel skills are demonstrated. The user is challenged to identify the error shown on the video and then to identify how to correct it. Some challenges show common errors that impact safety; others emphasize things to look for that may not impinge on safety, but that may impinge on efficiency and ease of travel. Some errors are obvious, some subtle, and some are just plain fun!

Hint: When learning a skill that has numerous components (e.g., human guide, touch technique), be certain to look at all of the components before trying any of the challenges. Each challenge may focus on one or more of the components!

Before viewing each challenge, you will be shown a list of three possible errors that might be shown in that challenge video. After viewing the challenge video, you will be prompted to return to a screen that again lists the three possible errors. Choose the error that you think was shown. If you choose the correct error, then you will proceed to the explanation screen in which you are given the opportunity to correct the error. If you choose the incorrect error, then you will be given the opportunity to make another choice or view a short video demonstrating the consequences of not correcting the true error. You can choose to view either the challenge video or the correct video at any time before choosing the error.

Hint: When choosing the error from the list of three possibilities that is given by the computer, be specific! For example, if the error listed is "Grasp on the cane," it means exactly that―how the traveler is grasping the cane―not whether or not he or she is holding it in the correct hand. Want another hint? Pick the primary problem, not a secondary one. For example, if the traveler swings his arm wide when performing certain cane techniques, the arc (area covered by the cane) may be overly wide on that side of his body. The problem here, however, will not be the arc, but the traveler's arm motion.

After you correctly identify the error shown, you will be given the opportunity to select the correct way in which to remediate the error. Choose the one that you think is best. The program will let you know if you are correct.

After completing all of the challenges for a specific skill, you will be provided with the opportunity to see them again. Just click on the number of the challenge that you wish to see. You can review each challenge as often as you like, and you can even review the challenges in a random order―just click on the random button. It is up to you.

Just as a note, not every skill has challenges to view. Many of the typical errors that travelers make when learning techniques are the same for several of the skills within a technique. In such cases, the errors are only shown when viewing the first skill alternative.

Step-By-Step also includes a glossary of terms that are used in the study guide (see Appendix C in the Introduction and Appendices module). For simplicity, the word "traveler" refers to the person with a visual impairment who is learning and performing the mobility technique. The word "guide" refers to a person (who may also be the O&M specialist) who is acting in the role of a human guide. Special terms that are used within the context of a skill (e.g., "clearing" to refer to the procedure for making sure that a seat is empty) are placed within quotation marks in the text and can be found in the glossary.

Appendix E provides a list of other Step-By-Step modules in the series. In addition, users who wish to have more detailed information about each mobility technique can refer to the Step-By-Step Study Guide. The study guide provides a more comprehensive presentation of each mobility technique than is possible on flash drives. In addition, it provides information on instructional strategies, identifies prerequisite skills and appropriate teaching environments, offers modifications for travelers who have special needs, and includes teaching tips and lots of other information geared for professionals who will teach orientation and mobility skills to people who have visual impairments.

We hope you find this interactive guide a helpful, effective, and engaging tool.

USING THE STEP-BY-STEP PROGRAM

2.1 Hardware Specifications and Set-Up

The Step-By-Step program can run on a computer using an Apple® or Microsoft Windows® operating system. Use the black flash drive labeled Mac on Apple/Mac computers and the white flash drive labeled PC on computers running Windows.

It is recommended that you review the required specifications and set-up procedures for either a Macintosh or PC before using the program. Rigorous testing has shown that computers that do not meet these specifications will not provide a consistent, quality learning experience.

2.1.1 Macintosh Specifications and Setup

The following specifications are required for Step-By-Step to run on your Macintosh:

Specifications

Follow these steps to set up Step-By-Step to run on your Macintosh:

Set-Up

2.1.2 PC Specifications and Set-Up

The following specifications are required for Step-By-Step to run on your PC:

Specifications

Follow these steps to set up Step-By-Step to run on your PC:

Set-Up

USING THE PROGRAM

2.2.1 Menu Bar

Before you begin your interactive studies, you must select a skill from the Menu Bar (see Figure 2.2.1.a). On the Menu Bar are pull-down menus for the three elements that comprise a skill: Category, Technique, and Skill.

Screenshot of the Menu Bar

Figure 2.2.1.a Menu Bar

After you select the Technique, you will be able to read the Technique Purpose. After you select the skill, you will be able to read the Skill Purpose.

If you have not selected one or more elements from the Menu Bar you will not be able to continue. After you select Category, Technique, and Skill, your choices will remain on the Menu Bar (see Figure 2.2.1.b) until you choose a new skill. You are ready to go!

Screenshot of the Menu Bar after selecting Category, Technique and Skill

Figure 2.2.1.b Menu Bar after selecting Category, Technique, and Skill

After you have selected a skill to review, you have two options:

These options are described in more detail below.

To return to the menu from any point in the program, just click one of the top navigation buttons marked Category, Technique, or Skill.

2.2.2 Study Section

When you are ready to review a skill, click the Study button to go to the Study Section. In this section, you may study the skill in two different ways:

First, we will show you how to navigate the Study Section. Review the table below to see what each button does.

Element Element function
Menu Bar button See Figure 2.2.1a & b.
Challenge button Click to go to Challenge Section.
Help button Click to go to the Help Section.
Quit button Click to exit Step-By-Step.

Study Section Navigation

You may choose to study the entire skill at once or specific steps within the skill by using the keypad on the left bar (see Figure 2.2.2.a).

Screenshot of keypad for Study Section

Overview button

Clicking the overview button allows you to read the text description for all steps in the skill. Use the scroll bar to read further if all text does not fit on the screen.

Step Number buttons

Clicking a step number button (1 through 12) allows you to read the text description of individual steps for that particular skill. The keypad will display only the number of steps for that skill.

Previous & Next buttons

Clicking the Previous or Next buttons allows you to navigate back and forth through individual steps for that particular skill. The program will tell you if you have reached the last step for that skill.

Click See Purpose of Skill to review the Skill Purpose. The number button for the last step viewed will remain lit as a placeholder.

Figure 2.2.2.a Study Section Keypad

You may switch between text and video by using the video controls at the bottom right (see Figure 2.2.2.d).

Study Text

Study Text allows you to read a text description of the entire skill (Overview) or of an individual step (1 through 12), depending upon which keypad button you select.

Overview Text

If you click Overview, then you will see the information for the entire skill in the text box. You may need to scroll down to read the text for all steps in that skill.

Screenshot of Overview Text

Figure 2.2.2.b Overview Text

Individual Step Text

If you select an individual step (e.g., Step 1), then you will see only the information for that step.

Screenshot of Individual Step Text

Figure 2.2.2.c Individual Step Text

For both options, it may be necessary to use the scroll bar to read the skill text.

Study Video

Study Video allows you to watch a video depiction of the entire skill (overview) or of an individual step (1 through 12), depending upon which keypad button you select.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.2.d Study Video controls

Video Speed buttons

Review the table below to see what each Video Speed button does.

Button Button Function
Full-speed button Press to change the video speed to full speed.
Half-speed button Press to change the video speed to half speed.
Quarter-speed button Press to change the video speed to quarter speed.

Study Video control buttons

Review the table below to see what each Study Video control button does.

Button Button Function
Previous button Press to go to the previous step.
Rewind button Press to rewind the video.*
Play button Press to play the video.*
Pause button Press to pause the video.
Next button Press to go to the next step.

* Note: If you click the Overview button, then the video controls will rewind or play the entire skill. If you have selected a specific step to review, then the video controls will rewind or play only that step.

2.2.3 Challenge Section

When you are ready to test your knowledge of the skill, click the Challenge button to go to the Challenge Section. Here you will see the skill performed incorrectly. Then you will be asked some questions about why it was incorrect and how it should be corrected. Each area of the screen is shown in the following graphic and is described in detail below.

Challenge Section Navigation

You may choose to go through a specific challenge within the skill or randomly select one by using the keypad on the left bar (see Figure 2.2.3.a).

Screenshot of keypad for Challenge Section

Random

Clicking the random button allows you to randomly select challenges in the skill. After you have gone through all the challenges in a random order, the program will tell you that you have finished.

Challenge Number buttons

Clicking a challenge number button (1 through 12) allows you to go through a challenge for that particular skill. The keypad will display only the number of challenges for that skill.

Previous & Next buttons

Clicking the Previous or Next buttons allows you to navigate back and forth through individual challenges for that particular skill. The program will tell you if you have reached the last challenge for that skill.

Figure 2.2.3.a Challenge Section Keypad

There are a number of additional navigation elements throughout the Challenge Section. Review the table below to see what each navigation button does.

Screenshot of additional navigation elements

Click See Purpose of Skill to review the Skill Purpose. The number button for the last challenge viewed will remain lit as a placeholder.

Click Check Answer to check your answer for the Error Choices and Correction Choices questions.

Click Return to Error Choices to review the Error Choices question again.

Click Return to Correction Choices to review the Correction Choices question again.

Click View Consequence Video to review the consequence video. This will show you what happens if you make the error in the challenge video.

Table 2.2.3

Challenge Questions

The Challenge Questions display instructions, challenge questions, or challenge discussion, depending upon which part of the challenge you are performing.

Challenge Questions Instructions

The initial instructions tell you to look for an error in the video.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.b Challenge Questions Instructions

Error Choices

The first question asks you to determine the error in the video that needs to be corrected. Click a radio button to choose the error that has occurred. Then click "Check Answer." If you are incorrect, a red "X" will appear next to your choice. You may try again or view the video again. If you are correct, then you will go to the Correction Choices.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.c Error Choices

Error Choices Feedback

If you get an answer wrong for the Error Choices question, a red "X" and an error message will appear. At this point you may view the challenge video again, attempt another answer, view the consequence video, or review the skill information. After you get the Error Choices question correct, you will move to the Correction Choices question.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.d Error Choices Feedback

Correction Choices

The second question asks you to determine how the error should be corrected. Click a radio button to choose the correction for the error that has occurred. Then click "Check Answer."

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.e Correction Choices

Challenge Explanation

After you check your answer for the Correction Choices question, you will go to the challenge explanation. It explains what the correction should be and why.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.f Challenge Explanation

Challenge Video

The Challenge Video allows you to watch a video depiction of a skill performed incorrectly. You will review an individual challenge (1 through 12), depending upon which keypad button you select.

The Consequence Video allows you to watch a video depiction of the consequence(s) of a particular skill performed incorrectly.

Screenshot of Study Video controls

Figure 2.2.3.g Challenge Video and Consequence Video controls

Video Speed buttons

Review the table below to see what each Video Speed button does.

Button Button Function
Full-speed button Press to change the video speed to full speed.
Half-speed button Press to change the video speed to half speed.
Quarter-speed button Press to change the video speed to quarter speed.

Challenge Video and Consequence Video control buttons

Review the table below to see what each Challenge and Consequence Video control button does.

Button Button Function
Previous button Press to go to the previous challenge.
Rewind button Press to rewind the video.*
Play button Press to play the video.*
Pause button Press to pause the video.
Next button Press to go to the next challenge.

* Note: If you click the Random button on the Challenge Section Keypad, then the video controls will rewind or play a randomly selected challenge. If you have selected a specific challenge to review, then the video controls will rewind or play only that challenge.

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Step-By-Step
User's Guide
Flash Drive Videos

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8-75980-00

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